An Invertebrate Burn Wound Model That Recapitulates the Hallmarks of Burn Trauma and Infection Seen in Mammalian Models
FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY
Authors: Maslova, Evgenia; Shi, Yejiao; Sjoberg, Folke; Azevedo, Helena S.; Wareham, David W.; McCarthy, Ronan R.
The primary reason for skin graft failure and the mortality of burn wound patients, particularly those in burn intensive care centers, is bacterial infection. Several animal models exist to study burn wound pathogens. The most commonly used model is the mouse, which can be used to study virulence determinants and pathogenicity of a wide range of clinically relevant burn wound pathogens. However, animal models of burn wound pathogenicity are governed by strict ethical guidelines and hindered by high levels of animal suffering and the high level of training that is required to achieve consistent reproducible results. In this study, we describe for the first time an invertebrate model of burn trauma and concomitant wound infection. We demonstrate that this model recapitulates many of the hallmarks of burn trauma and wound infection seen in mammalian models and in human patients. We outline how this model can be used to discriminate between high and low pathogenicity strains of two of the most common burn wound colonizersPseudomonas aeruginosaandStaphylococcus aureus, and multi-drug resistantAcinetobacter baumannii.This model is less ethically challenging than traditional vertebrate burn wound models and has the capacity to enable experiments such as high throughput screening of both anti-infective compounds and genetic mutant libraries.
Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from canine clinical cases at a veterinary academic hospital in South Africa
JOURNAL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN VETERINARY ASSOCIATION
Authors: Eliasi, Ulemu L.; Sebola, Dikeledi; Oguttu, James W.; Qekwana, Daniel N.
Although Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) can infect both animals and humans, there is a paucity of veterinary studies on antimicrobial resistance of P. aeruginosa in South Africa. Secondary data of canine clinical cases presented at the hospital from January 2007 to December 2013 was used. The following information was recorded: type of sample, the date of sampling and the antimicrobial susceptibility results. Frequencies, proportions and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all the categorical variables. In total, 155 P. aeruginosa isolates were identified and included in this study. All the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial (AMR), while 92% were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Most isolates were resistant to lincomycin (98%), penicillin-G (96%), orbifloxacin (90%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (90%) and doxycycline (87%). A low proportion of isolates was resistant to imipenem (6%), tobramycin (12%), amikacin (16%) and gentamicin (18%). A high proportion of MDR-P. aeruginosa isolates was resistant to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (99%), tylosin (99%), chloramphenicol (97%) and doxycycline (96%). Few (6%) of MDR-P. aeruginosa isolates were resistant to imipenem. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was associated with infections of various organ systems in this study. All P. aeruginosa isolates of P. aeruginosa exhibited resistance to ss-lactams, fluoroquinolones and lincosamides. Clinicians at the hospital in question should consider these findings when treating infections associated with P. aeruginosa.