Clinical and Microbiological Characterization of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Caused byAspergillus lentulusin China
FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY
Authors: Yu, Shu-Ying; Guo, Li-Na; Xiao, Meng; Zhou, Meng-Lan; Yuan, Ying; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Li; Sun, Tian-Shu; Ning, Ya-Ting; Jia, Pei-Yao; Kang, Wei; Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Sharon C-A; Zhao, Yanan; Xu, Ying-Chun
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) due toAspergillus lentulusis associated with high mortality. In this study, we investigated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of 6 fatal cases of proven or probable IA caused byA. lentulusin China. Underlying immunosuppression, prior antifungal exposure, and intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization were important risk factors for invasiveA. lentulusinfection. Phenotypic differences were observed forA. lentulusisolates including slower growth, reduced sporulation, and inability to grow at 48 degrees C, compared withAspergillus fumigatus complex. ITS sequencing was unable to distinguishA. lentulusfromA. fumigatus, but sequencing of thebenA,CaM, androd Aloci enabled reliable distinction of these closely related species. Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the ITS region had little variation within theAspergillussection Fumigati while thebenAgene offered the highest intraspecific discrimination. Microsatellite typing results revealed that only loci on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, and 6b generated detectable amplicons for identification. AllA. lentulusisolates showedin vitroresistance to multiple antifungal drugs including amphotericin B (MIC range 4 to 8 mu g/ml), itraconazole (MIC 2 mu g/ml), voriconazole (MIC of 4-16 mu g/ml), and posaconazole (MIC of 0.5-1 mu g/ml). However, MECs for the echinocandin drugs ranged from 0.03-0.25, <= 0.008-0.015, and <= 0.015-0.03 mu g/ml for caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin, respectively.A. lentulusis an emerging fungal pathogen in China, causing fatal disease, and clinicians as well as laboratories should be alert to their increasing presence.
Current Trends in Simultaneous Determination of Co-Administered Drugs
Authors: Celia, Christian; Di Marzio, Luisa; Locatelli, Marcello; Ramundo, Piera; D'Ambrosio, Francesca; Tartaglia, Angela
Recently, high demand of high-throughput analyses with high sensitivity and selectivity to molecules and drugs in different classes with different physical-chemical properties-and a reduction in analysis time-is a principal milestone for novel methodologies that researchers are trying to achieve-especially when analytical procedures are applied to clinical purposes. In addition, to avoid high doses of a single drug that could cause serious side effects, multi-drug therapies are often used to treat numerous diseases. For these reasons, the demand for methods that allow the rapid analysis of mixed compounds has increased in recent years. In order to respond to these needs, new methods and instruments have been developed. However, often the complexity of a matrix can require a long time for the preparation and processing of the samples. Different problems in terms of components, types of matrices, compounds and physical-chemical complexity are encountered when considering drugs association profiles for quantitative analyses. This review addresses not only recently optimized procedures such as chromatographic separation, but also methods that have allowed us to obtain accuracy (precision and trueness), sensitivity and selectivity in quantitative analyses for cases of drug associations.