Temporal and spatial Mycobacterium bovis prevalence patterns as evidenced in the All Wales Badgers Found Dead (AWBFD) survey of infection 2014-2016
Authors: Schroeder, Paul; Hopkins, Beverley; Jones, Jeff; Galloway, Terry; Pike, Ryan; Rolfe, Simon; Hewinson, Glyn
In order to better understand the spatial spread of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Wales, an All Wales Badgers Found Dead (AWBFD) survey was carried out from 2014-2016. For Wales, as a whole, there was a significant decrease (p<0.001) in prevalence of bTB in badgers since a similar survey was carried out in 2005-2006, with a drop from 13.3% to 7.3%. The highest prevalence was observed for the High TB Area East (18.6%), which shares its border with England, and differed significantly (p<0.001) from the High TB Area West (7.4%). The lowest proportion of carcases diagnosed with the disease (0.7%) was in the Low TB Area, followed by the two Intermediate TB Areas of Wales (2.7%). The M. bovis isolates from badgers tended to be similar to the genotypes of cattle in the same area, except in the Low TB Area. The direction of any cross species transmission and the drivers for this cannot be determined from this study. The spatial variations described here support the need for regionally adapted surveillance and control measures for bovine tuberculosis in Wales.
Does Mycobacterium bovis persist in cattle in a non-replicative latent state as Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human beings?
Authors: Garcia, Julia Sabio Y.; Bigi, Maria M.; Klepp, Laura, I; Garcia, Elizabeth A.; Blanco, Federico C.; Bigi, Fabiana
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) are responsible for tuberculosis in several mammals. In this complex, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, which are closely related, show host preference for humans and cattle, respectively. Although human and bovine tuberculosis are clinically similar, M. tuberculosis mostly causes latent infection in humans, whereas M. bovis frequently leads to an acute infection in cattle. This review attempts to connect the pathology in experimental animal models as well as the cellular responses to M. bovis and M. tuberculosis regarding the differences in protein expression and regulatory mechanisms of both pathogens that could explain their apparent divergent latency behaviour. The occurrence of latent bovine tuberculosis (bTB) would represent a serious complication for the eradication of the disease in cattle, with the risk of onward transmission to humans. Thus, understanding the physiological events that may lead to the state of latency in bTB could assist in the development of appropriate prevention and control tools.