The effects of Efaproxyn (TM) (Efaproxiral) on subcutaneous RIF-1 tumor oxygenation and enhancement of radiotherapy-mediated inhibition of tumor growth in mice
Authors: Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Grinberg, Oleg Y.; Yu, Hongsheng; Grinberg, Stalina A.; Lu, Shiyi; Demidenko, Eugene; Steffen, Robert P.; Swartz, Harold M.
Efaproxiral, an allosteric modifier of hemoglobin, reduces hemoglobin-oxygen binding affinity, facilitating oxygen release from hemoglobin, which is likely to increase tissue pO(2). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of efaproxiral on tumor oxygenation and growth inhibition of RIF-1 tumors that received X radiation (4 Gy) plus oxygen breathing compared to radiation plus oxygen plus efaproxiral daily for 5 days. Two lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) deposits were implanted in RIF-1 tumors in C3H mice for tumor pO(2) measurements using EPR oximetry. Efaproxiral significantly increased tumor oxygenation by 8.4 to 43.4 mmHg within 5 days, with maximum increases at 22-31 min after treatment. Oxygen breathing alone did not affect tumor pO(2). Radiation plus oxygen plus efaproxiral produced tumor growth inhibition throughout the treatment duration, and inhibition was significantly different from radiation plus oxygen from day 3 to day 5. The results of this study provide unambiguous quantitative information on the effectiveness of efaproxiral to consistently and reproducibly increase tumor oxygenation over the course of 5 days of treatment, modeling the clinical use of efaproxiral. Also, based on the tumor growth inhibition, the study shows the efaproxiral-enhanced tumor oxygenation was radiobiologically significant. This is the first study to demonstrate the ability of efaproxiral to increase tumor oxygenation and to increase the tumor growth inhibition of radiotherapy over 5 days of treatment. (c) 2007 by Radiation Research Society.
Heterogeneity of Regional Redox Status and Relation of the Redox Status to Oxygenation in a Tumor Model, Evaluated Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging
Authors: Takeshita, Keizo; Kawaguchi, Kumiko; Fujii-Aikawa, Kaori; Ueno, Megumi; Okazaki, Shoko; Ono, Mitsuhiro; Krishna, Murali C.; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Ikota, Nobuo
It is widely accepted that redox status, along with the partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)), determines the efficacy of some therapeutic methods applied to treat tumors, including radiation. Redox status, evaluated by the reduction of a nitroxyl probe, was reportedly heterogeneous in a mouse tumor model. However, neither variation of heterogeneity of the redox status among mice nor the relation of the redox status to pO(2) in tumors has been characterized sufficiently. In this study, the regional reduction status in a mouse radiation-induced fibrosarcoma tumor model was evaluated using sequential three-dimensional electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging after i.v. injection of a tissue-permeable nitroxyl probe, HM-PROXYL. The regional decay of HM-PROXYL signal obeyed first-order kinetics, and the amplitude of the reduction rate and extent of its heterogeneity in a tumor varied among six mice. The tissue pO(2) was measured using EPR oximetry with lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) microcrystals implanted within the tumor. The location of LiPc was determined with EPR imaging. A sequential image was obtained following the injection of HM-PROXYL, even after LiPc implantation, by choosing an HM-PROXYL signal peak which does not overlap with the signal of LiPc. The relationship between pO(2) and the reduction rate at the region of pO(2) measurement was found to be low (r - 0.357) in 13 tumor-bearing mice, indicating that the extent of oxygenation does not necessarily affect the redox status under air-breathing conditions. The results strongly indicate the necessity of measurements of both redox status and oxygenation in every tumor to characterize tumor physiology. Cancer Res; 70(10); 4133-40. (C)2010 AACR.