The association between increasing levels of O-GlcNAc and galectins in the liver tissue of hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus)
CELL AND TISSUE RESEARCH
Authors: Jariwala, Komal A.; Sherazi, Ali A.; Tazhitdinova, Rada; Shum, Kathryn; Guevorguian, Philipp; Karagiannis, Jim; Staples, James F.; Timoshenko, Alexander V.
Post-translational glycosylation of proteins with O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) and changes of galectin expression profiles are essential in many cellular stress responses. We examine this regulation in the liver tissue of hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) representing a biological model of hypometabolism and physiological stress resistance. The tissue levels of O-GlcNAcylated proteins as well as galectin-1 and galectin-3 proteins detected by immunodot blot assay were significantly lower by 4.6-5.4-, 2.2-2.3- and 2.5-2.9-fold, respectively, in the non-hibernating summer squirrels compared with those in winter, whether hibernating or aroused. However, there were no differences in the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in O-GlcNAc cycle (O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase) and such galectins as LGALS1, LGALS2, LGALS3, LGALS4 and LGALS9. Only the expression of LGALS8 gene in the liver tissue was significantly decreased by 37.6 +/- 0.1% in hibernating ground squirrels relative to summer animals. Considering that the expression of a proven genetic biomarker ELOVL6 encoding ELOVL fatty acid elongase 6 was readily upregulated in non-hibernating animals by 11.3-32.9-fold, marginal differential changes in the expression of galectin genes cannot be classified as biomarkers of hibernation. Thus, this study provides evidence that hibernation in Ictidomys tridecemlineatus is associated with increasing O-GlcNAcylation of liver proteins and suggests that the contribution of galectins deserves further studies at the protein level.
Short communication: Inflammation, migration, and cell-cell interaction-related gene network expression in leukocytes is enhanced in Simmental compared with Holstein dairy cows after calving
JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE
Authors: Lopreiato, V; Minuti, A.; Morittu, V. M.; Britti, D.; Piccioli-Cappelli, F.; Loor, J. J.; Trevisi, E.
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the abundance of genes involved in leukocyte function between cows highly specialized for milk production (Holstein, n = 12) and cows selected for meat and milk (Simmental, n = 13). Blood was collected on d 3 after calving in PAXgene tubes (Preanalytix, Hombrechtikon, Switzerland) to measure mRNA abundance of 33 gens. Normalized gene abundance data were subjected to MIXED model ANOVA using SAS (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC). Simmental cows had greater transcript abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and receptor genes (IL1B, TNF, IL1R, TNFRSF1A), cell migration- and adhesion-related genes (CX9CR1, ITGB2, CD44, LGALS8), and the antimicrobial IDO1 gene. In contrast, compared with Holstein cows, Simmental cows had lower abundance of the toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition-related gene TLR2, the antimicrobial-related gene LTF, and S100A8, which is involved in cell maturation, regulation of inflammatory processes, and immune response. These results revealed that breed plays an important role in the modulation of genes involved in immune adaptation and inflammatory response, and the immune system of Simmental cows could potentially have a more acute response in early lactation. In turn, this might be beneficial for mounting a more efficient response after calving and allow for a smoother homeorhetic adaptation to lactation.