Expression and localization of tissue kallikrein mRNAs in human epidermis and appendages
JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE DERMATOLOGY
Authors: Komatsu, N; Takata, M; Otsuki, N; Toyama, T; Ohka, R; Takehara, K; Saijoh, K
Tissue kallikreins are a group of serine proteases that are found in many organs and biologic fluids. Tissue kallikrein genes (KLKs) are found on chromosome 19q13.3-4 as a gene cluster encoding 15 different serine proteases. In skin, two tissue kallikrein proteins, hK5 and hK7, are expressed in the stratum corneum and are known to be involved in desquamation of corneocytes. The possible involvement of other kallikrein proteins has not been clarified, however, nor has the significance of each member in the serine protease activity of skin been delineated. In the study described here, we examined expression and localization of KLK mRNA in normal human skin by means of RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed abundant expression of KLK1 and KLK11 mRNA, moderate expression of KLK4, KLK5, KLK6, KLK7, and KLK13 mRNA, and low expression of KLK8 mRNA in normal human skin. For KLK4, KLK8, and KLK13 mRNA, splice variants were identified to be their major mRNA species. Two variants for KLK13 mRNA were novel. The amount of the serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5 (SPINK5) mRNA was comparable to KLK1 and KLK11 mRNA. In situ hybridization revealed intense expression of all KLK mRNA studied except KLK12 mRNA in the stratum granulosum of normal epidermis, where SPINK5 mRNA coexisted. Excluding KLK13 mRNA, they are also expressed in hair sheath, eccrine sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. Coexpression of various KLK and SPINK5 mRNA suggests that their proteins are the candidates to balance and maintain serine protease activities in both the skin and appendages.
Kallikrein-related Peptidase 5 (KLK5) Expression and Distribution in Canine Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma
JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY
Authors: Ortloff, A.; Bustamante, F. A.; Molina, L.; Ojeda, J.; Figueroa, C. D.; Ehrenfeld, P.
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most common types of malignant skin cancer in dogs, representing 3.9-10.4% of all canine skin tumours. Although the metastatic potential of cSCC is debated, it appears to mimic that observed in man. In man, predictive histopathological features for metastasis include tumour depth, lesions >5-6 mm in depth, and invasion of muscle, cartilage or bone. In dogs, some reports have focused on the clinical features and long-term progression of cSCC, but a gold standard treatment has not yet been developed. We explored the protein expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 5 (KLK5), an important modulator of skin homeostasis, in normal canine skin and in examples of cSCC. KLK5 was highly expressed in the upper stratum granulosum, stratum corneum, hair follicles and sweat glands, skin sites where human KLK5 has been shown to be involved in physiological processes including keratinocyte desquamation, antimicrobial defence, lipid permeability and pigmentation. In cSCC, tumour cells at the deep margin, as well as those in the centre of keratin pearls, displayed cytoplasmic expression of KLK5. Some of the KLK5 immunoreactive cells also expressed vimentin, suggesting that they may be undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and therefore have a more invasive behaviour than those expressing only KLK5. KLK5 may be a novel molecular biomarker useful for predicting prognosis of cSSC in dogs. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.