Source identification and assessment of heavy metal contamination in urban soils based on cluster analysis and multiple pollution indices
JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS
Authors: Lee, Hong-gil; Kim, Hyun-Koo; Noh, Hoe-Jung; Byun, Yoon Joo; Chung, Hyen-Mi; Kim, Ji-In
Purpose To identify the sources and levels of contamination with anthropogenically derived heavy metals (HMs) for appropriate pollution control. We quantified anthropogenic influences with respect to HM pollution in soil, based on multiple pollution indices and cluster analysis derived from the results of an annual nationwide survey conducted in Korea. Methods Contamination levels of HMs in soils were quantitatively evaluated using multiple pollution indices: contamination factor (CF), geo-accumulation index (I-geo), Nemerow's integrated pollution index (NIPI), and pollution load index (PLI). Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to elucidate the correlations between HMs and contamination sources. A total of 2214 HM concentration data including six contamination sources were used to evaluate the pollution state of anthropogenic effects of HMs. Results The CFs for Zn and Cu revealed a broad enrichment of these HMs in all pollution sources. Scrap recycling sites (SRS) had the highest likelihood of pollutant distribution in soil surfaces. NIPI and PLI varied with the extent of anthropogenic activities or land use, especially in SRS, waste disposal sites (WDS), transport maintenance sites (TMS), and industrial sites (INS), and anthropogenic sources were divided into three discrete clusters: INS-TMS-LDS (land development sites), SRS-WDS, and vicinities of industrial sites (VIS). Conclusion Our results confirmed that soil pollution indices combined with cluster analysis were useful to identify sources of anthropogenic HMs in urban soil, as well as to assess the levels of HM contamination.
UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-Mass Spectrometric Assessment of the Polyphenolic Content of Salvia officinalis to Evaluate the Efficiency of Traditional Herbal Extraction Procedures
REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE FARMACOGNOSIA-BRAZILIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOGNOSY
Authors: Sharma, Yashaswini; Velamuri, Ravikishore; Fagan, John; Schaefer, Jim
The healing properties ofSalvia officinalisL., Lamiaceae, sage are well known. The presence of high levels of polyphenols inS.officinalisleaves is responsible for many of the therapeutic benefits of the herb. This study used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry in conjunction with extensive mass spectral libraries to identify the polyphenols with high sensitivity. The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of six different traditional extraction procedures (fresh tissue homogenization, fresh and dry leaf decoction, and their respective fermentation) for efficient recovery of phytochemicals using data-independent acquisition in negative electrospray ionization mode. The concentrations of caffeic acid (477.57 +/- 7.26 mu g/g) and rosmarinic acid (13,694.13 +/- 112.06 mu g/g) in fermented dry leaf decoctions were found to be significantly higher than in other extracts. However, the dry leaf decoction yielded significantly higher levels of the flavonoid luteolin-7-O-glucoside (691.60 +/- 9.81 mu g/g) and the terpenoids carnosol, carnosic acid, and ursolic acid (215.61 +/- 4.92 mu g/g, 529.61 +/- 9.61 mu g/g, and 19.90 +/- 0.22 mu g/g, respectively). Two flavonoid compounds, diosmetin ([M-H](-)m/z299.0554) and pectolinarigenin ([M-H](-) m/z 313.0715), were identified for the first time inS.officinalis. Among fifty-four identified polyphenols, gallocatechin, scutellarin, sagerinic acid, salvianolic acids, pectolinarigenin, rosmanol, rosmadial, and 12-methoxy carnosic acid were found in higher intensities. Dry leaf decoction and its fermentation were found to be the most efficient traditional extraction methods for polyphenols in S.officinalis.