The papain-like protease of avian infectious bronchitis virus has deubiquitinating activity
ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY
Authors: Yu, Liping; Zhang, Xiaorong; Wu, Tianqi; Wang, Yuyang; Meng, Jie; Liu, Qian; Niu, Xiaosai; Wu, Yantao
Coronavirus papain-like proteases (PLPs) can act as proteases that process virus-encoded large replicase polyproteins and also as deubiquitinating (DUB) enzymes. Like the PLPs of other coronaviruses (CoVs), the avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) PLP catalyzes proteolysis of Gly-Gly dipeptide bonds to release mature cleavage products. However, the other functions of the IBV PLP are not well understood. In this study, we found that IBV exhibits strong global DUB activity with significant reductions of the levels of ubiquitin (Ub)-, K48-, and K63-conjugated proteins. The DUB activity exhibited a clear time dependence, with stronger DUB activity in the early stage of viral infection. Furthermore, the IBV replicase-encoded PLP, including the downstream transmembrane (TM) domain, is a DUB enzyme and dramatically reduced the level of Ub-conjugated proteins, while processing both K48- and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains. By contrast, PLP did not cause any reduction of haemagglutinin (HA)-Ub-conjugated proteins. In addition, mutations of the catalytic residues of PLP-TM, Cys1274Ser and His1437Lys, reduced DUB activity against Ub-, K48- and K63- conjugated proteins, indicating that the DUB activity of the PLP-TM wild-type protein is not completely dependent on its catalytic activity. Overall, these results demonstrate that the IBV-encoded PLP-TM functions as a DUB enzyme and suggest that IBV may interfere with the activation of host antiviral signaling pathway by degrading polyubiquitin-associated proteins.
Co-circulation of three clusters of 793/B-like avian infectious bronchitis virus genotypes in Iranian chicken flocks
ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY
Authors: Kalokhoran, Ali Yousefzadeh; Ghalyanchilangeroudi, Arash; Hosseini, Hossein; Madadgar, Omid; Karimi, Vahid; Hashemzadeh, Masoud; Hesari, Parvaneh; Petroudi, Mohammad Taha Zabihi; Najafi, Hamideh
Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious viral disease causing severe economic losses in the poultry industry. The 793/B IB virus is an important infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) genotype currently circulating in several countries, including Iran. One hundred confirmed IBV samples (between 2014 and 2015; from 15 provinces in Iran) were selected for genotyping based on S1 sequencing. After phylogenetic analysis, it was found that 30% of the IBV isolates belonged to the 793/B genotype. Results showed that the Iranian 793/B-like IBV isolates could be divided in to three clusters: 4/91-like (50%), 1/96-like (40%), and IB88-like (10%). The sequence similarity between Iranian 793/B-like IBV isolates is 87.69%-100%. The highest identity is between the 4/91 and IB88 clusters (96.38%), and the lowest similarity is between the 1/96 and IB88 clusters (87.62%). This study provides a comprehensive analysis of 793/B-type IBV in Iran and characterization of IBV molecular epidemiology in the country.