Vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus: A continuous challenge
Authors: Jordan, Brian
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a significant respiratory pathogen of commercial poultry that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue worldwide each year. Even though the poultry industry extensively vaccinates against IBV, emergence of new serotypes and variants continually occur, making control of the disease difficult. Current mass application strategies for IBV vaccines are inefficient and frequently result in vaccination failures. Novel vaccine technology development has been slow, and is hindered by the constraints of large-scale poultry production. Further complicating the situation is the lack of knowledge of IBV protein and host cell interactions, making targeted vaccine intervention strategies near impossible. Taken together, it is easy to see why this disease remains significant in poultry production. This review outlines the current situation as it relates to IBV control, including vaccination, vaccines, and development of immunity, and recent developments in vaccine technology that may provide better protection in the future. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shell-Less Egg Syndrome (SES) Widespread in Western Canadian Layer Operations Is Linked to a Massachusetts (Mass) Type Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) Isolate
Authors: Amarasinghe, Aruna; Popowich, Shelly; Senapathi, Upasama De Silva; Abdul-Cader, Mohamed Sarjoon; Marshall, Frank; van der Meer, Frank; Cork, Susan C.; Gomis, Susantha; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal
A disease with a sudden drop in egg production and shell-less eggs called, shell-less egg syndrome (SES) has been observed in Western Canada egg layer flocks since 2010. The etiology of this disease is not known. We hypothesize that SES is caused by an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain since it is known that IBV replicates in the shell gland causing various eggshell abnormalities. In this study, we screened egg layer flocks, in the provinces of Alberta (AB) and Saskatchewan (SK), with and without a history of SES for the presence of IBV infection. During 2015-2016, a total of 27 egg layer flocks were screened in AB (n = 7) and SK (n = 20). Eighty-one percent of the screened flocks (n = 22) were positive for IBV infection. Thirty of these isolates were successfully characterized using molecular tools targeting the most variable spike (S) 1 gene. IBV isolates from this study clustered into three genotypes based on partial S1 gene variability. The majority of the IBV isolates (70%) were Massachusetts (Mass) type, and the rest were either Connecticut (Conn) type or an uncharacterized genotype with genetic characteristics of Mass and Conn types. Since the majority of the IBV isolates included within the Mass type, we used a Mass type IBV isolate to reproduce SES in specific pathogen free (SPF) white leghorn chickens in lay. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether other IBV isolates can cause SES, to clarify the pathogenesis of SES and to develop a vaccine in order to prevent SES as observed in Western Canadian layer flocks.