16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals an altered composition of the gut microbiota in chickens infected with a nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus
Authors: Xu, Puzhi; Shi, Yan; Liu, Ping; Yang, Yitian; Zhou, Changming; Li, Guyue; Luo, Junrong; Zhang, Caiying; Cao, Huabin; Hu, Guoliang; Guo, Xiaoquan
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a member of the Coronaviridae family, causes serious losses to the poultry industry. Intestinal microbiota play an important role in chicken health and contribute to the defence against colonization by invading pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between the intestinal microbiome and nephropathogenic IBV (NIBV) infection. Initially, chickens were randomly distributed into 2 groups: the normal group (INC) and the infected group (IIBV). The ilea were collected for morphological assessment, and the ileal contents were collected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The results of the IIBV group analyses showed a significant decrease in the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (P < 0.05), while the goblet cells increased compared to those in the INC group. Furthermore, the microbial diversity in the ilea decreased and overrepresentation of Enterobacteriaceae and underrepresentation of Chloroplast and Clostridia was found in the NIBV-infected chickens. In conclusion, these results showed that the significant separation of the two groups and the characterization of the gut microbiome profiles of the chickens with NIBV infection may provide valuable information and promising biomarkers for the diagnosis of this disease.
Viral interference between low pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 and avian infectious bronchitis viruses in vitro and in ovo
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGICAL METHODS
Authors: Aouini, Rim; Laamiri, Nacira; Ghram, Abdeljelil
Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) are important pathogens of poultry, causing important economic losses for the sector. Replication interference between these two viruses was described using cell cultures (CC) and embryonated chicken eggs (ECE). Chicken embryo lung (CEL) and ECE were simultaneously or sequentially infected with IBV vaccine strain (H120) and LPAIV-H9N2 (A/Ck/TUN/145/2012) to evaluate viral interactionsin vitro and in ovo, respectively. Real-time RT-PCR was developed to specifically quantify both AIV and IBV genomes as well as viral gene copy numbers during mixed infections. The amount of IL-1 beta, in supernatants of co-infected cell cultures, was determined using an ELISA assay. Results: Quantitative results of AIV and IBV co-infection showed that interferences between the two viruses yielded decreased viral growth. However, in the case of super-infection, the second virus, either AIV or IBV, induced a decrease in the growth of the first inoculated virus. Conclusion: It appears that either AIV or IBV has a negative impact on the other virus growth when they are inoculated simultaneously or sequentially. The ELISA results showed that higher level of secreted IL-lbeta varies, depending on the viral interference conditions between both viruses, during mixed infections.