Variability in biological behaviour, pathogenicity, protectotype and induction of virus neutralizing antibodies by different vaccination programmes to infectious bronchitis virus genotype Q1 strains from Chile
Authors: de Wit, J. J.; Dijkman, R.; Guerrero, P.; Calvo, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Hidalgo, H.
In the period from July 2008 to 2010, a disease episode resulting in serious economic losses in the major production area of the Chilean poultry industry was reported. These losses were associated with respiratory problems, increase of condemnations, drops in egg production and nephritis in breeders, laying hens and broilers due to infections with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Twenty-five IBV isolates were genotyped and four strains were selected for further testing by pathotyping and protectotyping. Twenty-four IBV isolates were of the Q1 genotype. The experiments also included comparing the ability of six vaccination programmes to induce virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) in layers against four selected Chilean strains. Despite the high genetic homology in the S1 gene between the four strains, the heterogeneity in biological behaviour of these different Q1 strains was substantial. These differences were seen in embryonated eggs, in cell culture, in pathogenicity and in level of cross-protection by IBV Massachusetts (Mass) vaccination. This variability underlines the importance of testing more than one strain per serotype or genotype to determine the characteristics of a certain serotype of genotype. The combination of Mass and 793B vaccine provided a high level of protection to the respiratory tract and the kidney for each strain tested in the young birds. The combination of broad live priming using Mass and 793B vaccines and boosting with multiple inactivated IBV antigens induced the highest level of VNA against Q1 strains, which might be indicative for higher levels of protection against Q1 challenge in laying birds.
Viral interference between H9N2-low pathogenic avian influenza virus and avian infectious bronchitis virus vaccine strain H120 in vivo
COMPARATIVE IMMUNOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Authors: Rim, Aouini; Nacira, Laamiri; Jihene, Nsiri; Said, Salhi; Khaled, Miled; Ahmed, Rejab; Abdeljelil, Ghram
The interaction between a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (A/CK/TUN/145/2012), a H9N2 Tunisian isolate, and a vaccine strain (H120) of avian infectious bronchitis, administered simultaneously or sequentially three days apart to chicks during 20 days, was evaluated using ELISA antibody levels, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses and histopathology examination. First, the in vivo replication interference of avian influenza virus (AIV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was evaluated using qRT-PCR to detect accurately either AIV or IBV genomes or viral copy numbers during dual infections. Second, we have determined the amount of specific antibodies in sera of chick's infected with AIV alone, IBV alone, mixed AIV + IBV, IBV then AIV or AIV IBV 3 days later using an ELISA test. Finally, histopathological analyses of internal organs from inoculated chicks were realized. Quantitative results of AIV and IBV co-infection showed that interferences between the two viruses yielded decreased viral growth. However, in the case of super-infection, the second virus, either AIV or IBV, induced a decrease in the growth of the first inoculated virus. According to our results, vaccine application was safe and do not interfere with AIV H9N2 infection, and does not enhance such infection. In conclusion, co-infection of chicks with AIV and IBV, simultaneously or sequentially, affected the clinical signs, the virus replication dynamics as well as the internal organ integrity. The results proposed that infection with heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated.