A Novel Strategy Facilitates Reference Gene Selection by RT-qPCR Analysis in Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome Mice Infected with the Influenza A (H1N1) Virus
BIOMED RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL
Authors: Fu, Yepei; Yang, Jia; Fan, Shanshan; Zhao, Shaozhe; Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali; Akram, Muhammad; Rong, Rong; Yang, Yong
In reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) studies, endogenous reference genes are routinely used to normalize the expression of target gene studies. In order to precisely evaluate the relative expression of genes in the cells of mice suffering from Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KYDS) in response to influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 using RT-qPCR, it is crucial to identify reliable reference genes. In the present study, 15 candidate reference genes (Actb, beta 2m, Gapdh, Gusb, Tuba, Grcc10, Eif4h, Rnf187, Nedd8, Ywhae, 18S rRNA, Rpl13, Ubc, Rpl32, and Ppia) were investigated in lung cells from KYDS mice infected with IAV H1N1. NormFinder, BestKeeper, and GeNorm were used to assess the stability of reference genes. The results were authenticated over extended experimental settings by a group of 10 samples. In the present study, we explored a novel method using dual-gene combinations; the difference in gene expression between the model and normal control groups was statistically analyzed by an independent-samples t-test, and the difference in the mean value between the two groups was compared. A P value > 0.05 and the lowest absolute value of the difference indicated the optimal reference two-gene combination. Four additional host innate immune system-related genes (TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, and RIG-I) were analyzed together with the two treatment datasets to confirm the selected reference genes. Our results indicated that none of these 15 candidate reference genes can be used as reference gene individually for relative quantitative fluorescence PCR analysis; however, the combination of Grcc10 and Ppia, based on the process of calculating the higher P value and lower difference values between groups, was the best choice as a reference gene for the lung tissue samples in KYDS mice infected with IAV. This technique may be applied to promote the selection process of the optimal reference gene in other experiments.
Comparative Analyses of the Antiviral Activities of IgG and IgA Antibodies to Influenza A Virus M2 Protein
Authors: Okuya, Kosuke; Eguchi, Nao; Manzoor, Rashid; Yoshida, Reiko; Saito, Shinji; Suzuki, Tadaki; Sasaki, Michihito; Saito, Takeshi; Kida, Yurie; Mori-Kajihara, Akina; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Ichii, Osamu; Kajihara, Masahiro; Higashi, Hideaki; Takada, Ayato
The influenza A virus (IAV) matrix-2 (M2) protein is an antigenically conserved viral envelope protein that plays an important role in virus budding together with another envelope protein, hemagglutinin (HA). An M2-specific mouse monoclonal IgG antibody, rM2ss23, which binds to the ectodomain of the M2 protein, has been shown to be a non-neutralizing antibody, but inhibits plaque formation of IAV strains. In this study, we generated chimeric rM2ss23 (ch-rM2ss23) IgG and IgA antibodies with the same variable region and compared their antiviral activities. Using gel chromatography, ch-rM2ss23 IgA were divided into three antibody subsets: monomeric IgA (m-IgA), dimeric IgA (d-IgA), and trimeric and tetrameric IgA (t/q-IgA). We found that t/q-IgA had a significantly higher capacity to reduce the plaque size of IAVs than IgG and m-IgA, most likely due to the decreased number of progeny virus particles produced from infected cells. Interestingly, HA-M2 colocalization was remarkably reduced on the infected cell surface in the presence of ch-rM2ss23 antibodies. These results indicate that anti-M2 polymeric IgA restricts IAV budding more efficiently than IgG and suggest a role of anti-M2 IgA in cross-protective immunity to IAVs.