Influenza A H5N1 (Avian Flu) Hemagglutinin, HA ELISA Kit (CKERS-HA-247I)

Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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Size
5plates
Intended Use
The H5N1 (Avian Flu) HA ELISA kit is for the quantitative determination of H5N1 (Avian Flu) HA.
This ELISA kit contains the basic components required for the development of sandwich ELISAs. Each kit contains sufficient materials to run ELISAs on five 96-well plates.
Contents of Kit
1. Bring all reagents to room temperature before use.
2. Capture Antibody: 0.4 mg/mL of mouse anti-H5N1 HA monoclonal antibody.
3. Detection Antibody: 0.8 mg/mL of rabbit anti-H5N1 HA polyclonal antibody. Dilute to a working concentration of 2 μg/mL in detection antibody dilution buffer before use.
4. Standard: Each vial contains 70 ng of recombinant H5N1 (Avian Flu) HA. Reconstitute with 1 mL detection antibody dilution buffer. A seven-point standard curve using 2-fold serial dilutions in sample dilution buffer, and a high standard of 5 ng/mL is recommended.
5. Streptavidin-HRP: Streptavidin conjugated to horse-radish-peroxidase. 1:2,000 Dilution in detection antibody dilution buffer before use.
Storage
Keep streptavidin-HRP at 4°C and protect it from prolonged exposure to light. Aliquot all other reagents and store at -20°C to -70°C in a manual defrost freezer.
Sensitivity
The minimum detectable dose of H5N1 (Avian Flu) H5N1 (Avian Flu) HA was determined to be approximately 78 pg/mL. This is defined as at least three times standard deviations above the mean optical density of 10 replicates of the zero standard.

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References


Nitrogen stocks and flows in an acid sulfate soil

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT

Authors: Yli-Halla, Markku; Virtanen, Seija; Regina, Kristiina; Osterholm, Peter; Ehnvall, Betty; Uusi-Kamppa, Jaana

Besides causing acidification, acid sulfate (AS) soils contain large nitrogen (N) stocks and are a potential source of N loading to waters and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. We quantified the stocks and flows of N, including crop yields, N leaching, and N2O emissions, in a cultivated AS soil in western Finland. We also investigated whether controlled drainage (CD) and sub-irrigation (CDI) to keep the sulfidic horizons inundated can alleviate N losses. Total N stock at 0-100 cm (19.5 Mg ha(-1)) was smaller than at 100-200 cm (26.6 Mg ha(-1)), and the mineral N stock was largest below 170 cm. Annual N leaching (31-91 kg N ha(-1)) plus N in harvested grain (74-122 kg N ha(-1)) was 148% (range 118-189%) of N applied in fertilizers (90-125 kg N ha(-1)) in 2011-2017, suggesting substantial N supply from soil reserves. Annual emissions of N2O measured during 2 years were 8-28 kg N ha(-1). The most probable reasons for high N2O emission rates in AS soils are concomitant large mineral N pools with fluctuating redox conditions and low pH in the oxidized subsoil, all favoring formation of N2O in nitrification and denitrification. Although the groundwater level was higher in CD and CDI than in conventional drainage, N load and crop offtake did not differ between the drainage methods, but there were differences in emissions. Nitrogen flows to the atmosphere and drainage water were clearly larger than those in non-AS mineral soils indicating that AS soils are potential hotspots of environmental impacts.

Aligning Hearing Aid and Cochlear Implant Improves Hearing Outcome in Bimodal Cochlear Implant Users

OTOLOGY & NEUROTOLOGY

Authors: Holtmann, Laura Christine; Janosi, Anna; Bagus, Heike; Scholz, Tim; Lang, Stephan; Arweiler-Harbeck, Diana; Hans, Stefan

Objective: Patients with unilateral deafness and residual hearing on the contralateral ear can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI) on one side and a hearing aid (HA) on the other. However, hearing improvement among these patients is heterogenous. Interindividual differences in bimodal benefit may be caused by a mismatch of CI and HA. The aim of this study was to clinically apply a HA fitting strategy and to evaluate hearing outcome with and without a dedicated bimodal fitting formula. Study Design: Prospective non-randomized study. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Patients: Twelve patients using a CI processor and a conventional HA were enrolled. Before and after the new HA had been adjusted to the patient and linked to the CI, pure-tone audiometry and localization tests were performed. Speech perception was determined in quiet and noise. Tests were repeated after 6 and 12 weeks. To evaluate the subjective listening comfort two questionnaires (Oldenburg Inventory and HISQUI(19)) were assessed. Intervention: Therapeutic. Results Main outcome measure: Word recognition in quiet, sentence recognition in noise. Speech perception in noise improved significantly: directed suppression of noise helped to segregate the target speech signal from a mixture of sounds or competing speakers. Evaluation of the questionnaires revealed a positive subjective hearing experience compared with patients' initial settings of the devices. Conclusion: By linking CI and HA hearing and speech perception can be improved. However, good counselling at the outset is essential to obtain enhanced outcome.

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