Noninvasive bioluminescence imaging of the dynamics of sanguinarine induced apoptosis via activation of reactive oxygen species
Authors: Wang, Yan; Zhang, Beilei; Liu, Wei; Dai, Yunpeng; Shi, Yaru; Zeng, Qi; Wang, Fu
Most chemotherapeutic drugs exert their anti-tumor effects primarily by triggering a final pathway leading to apoptosis. Noninvasive imaging of apoptotic events in preclinical models would greatly facilitate the development of apoptosis-inducing compounds and evaluation of their therapeutic efficacy. Here we employed a cyclic firefly luciferase (cFluc) reporter to screen potential pro-apoptotic compounds from a number of natural agents. We demonstrated that sanguinarine (SANG) could induce apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in UM-SCC-22B head and neck cancer cells. Moreover, SANG-induced apoptosis was associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappa B) signal pathways. After intravenous administration with SANG in 22B-cFluc xenograft models, a dramatic increase of luminescence signal can be detected as early as 48 h post-treatment, as revealed by longitudinal bioluminescence imaging in vivo. Remarkable apoptotic cells reflected from ex vivo TUNEL staining confirmed the imaging results. Importantly, SANG treatment caused distinct tumor growth retardation in mice compared with the vehicle-treated group. Taken together, our results showed that SANG is a candidate anti-tumor drug and noninvasive imaging of apoptosis using cFluc reporter could provide a valuable tool for drug development and therapeutic efficacy evaluation.
Evaluation of Non-Extracted Genital Swabs for Real-Time HSV PCR
JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY
Authors: Miari, Victoria F.; Wall, Gavin R.; Clark, Duncan A.
Nucleic acid extraction of clinical samples is accepted as a key requirement in molecular diagnostics. At Barts Health NHS Trust, swabs taken from patients with clinical suspicion of HSV infection were routinely extracted on the Qiagen MDx BioRobot prior to testing with a real-time triplex PCR for HSV1, HSV2, and VZV. The aim of this study was to adapt an existing HSV1/HSV2/VZV real-time PCR by replacing VZV with phocine herpesvirus 1 (PhHV) as an internal control (IC) and evaluate whether this adapted assay required the nucleic acid extraction step for predominantly genital swabs. First 313 non-extracted and extracted swabs were tested in parallel with the existing triplex HSV1/HSV2/VZV real-time PCR. The second stage involved testing 176 non-extracted swabs using a triplex real-time PCR for HSV1, HSV2, and PhHV and comparing the results with the samples extracted and tested by the original triplex assay. The results correlated well when the existing assay was used, with only three non-extracted samples that would have been reported as negative compared to the extracted sample result (C(q)s 33, 39, 35two samples HSV1, one sample HSV2). In the evaluation using the adapted assay containing the IC, two of 176 samples were discordant, where a HSV negative non-extracted sample result would have been reported differently to the extracted sample result (C(q)s 32, 33both HSV1). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to test non-extracted swabs for HSV in a real-time PCR that includes an IC. J. Med. Virol. 87: 125-129, 2015. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.