Pattern of antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in individuals differentially exposed to Anopheles bites
Authors: Aka, Kakou G.; Traore, Dipomin F.; Sagna, Andre B.; Zoh, Dounin D.; Assi, Serge B.; Tchiekoi, Bertin N'cho; Adja, Akre M.; Remoue, Franck; Poinsignon, Anne
Background In malaria-endemic areas, human populations are frequently exposed to immunomodulatory salivary components injected during mosquito blood feeding. The consequences on pathogen-specific immune responses are not well known. This study evaluated and compared the humoral responses specific to merozoite stage vaccine candidates of Plasmodium falciparum, in children differentially exposed to Anopheles bites in a natural setting. Methods The cross-sectional study was carried out in Bouake (Cote d'Ivoire) where entomological data and blood samples from children (0-14 years) were collected in two sites with similar malaria prevalence. Antibody (IgG, IgG1, IgG3) responses to PfAMA1 and PfMSP1 were evaluated by ELISA. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to assess the relationship between the immune responses to P. falciparum antigens and exposure to Anopheles bites in the total cohort and in each site, separately. The individual level of exposure to Anopheles bites was evaluated by quantifying specific IgG response to the Anopheles gSG6-P1 salivary peptide, which represents a proxy of Anopheles exposure. Results The anti-Plasmodium humoral responses were different according to the level of exposure of children, with those highly exposed to Anopheles presenting significantly lower antibody responses to PfMSP1 in total population (IgG and IgG3) and in Petessou village (IgG, IgG1, IgG3). No significant difference was seen for PfAMA1 antigen between children differently exposed to Anopheles. In Dar-es-Salam, a neighbourhood where a high Culex density was reported, children presented very low antibody levels specific to both antigens, and no difference according to the exposure to Anopheles bites was found. Conclusion These findings may suggest that immunomodulatory components of Anopheles saliva, in addition to other factors, may participate to the modulation of the humoral response specific to Plasmodium merozoite stage antigens. This epidemiological observation may form a starting point for additional work to decipher the role of mosquito saliva on the modulation of the anti-Plasmodium acquired immunity and clinical protection in combining both field and ex vivo immunological studies.
Structural characterization of the Man5 glycoform of human IgG3 Fc
Authors: Shah, Ishan S.; Lovell, Scott; Mehzabeen, Nurjahan; Battaile, Kevin P.; Tolbert, Thomas J.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) consists of four subclasses in humans: IgGl, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4, which are highly conserved but have unique differences that result in subclass-specific effector functions. Though IgG1 is the most extensively studied IgG subclass, study of other subclasses is important to understand overall immune function and for development of new therapeutics. When compared to IgGl, IgG3 exhibits a similar binding profile to Fey receptors and stronger activation of complement. All IgG subclasses are glycosylated at N297, which is required for Fcy receptor and Clq complement binding as well as maintaining optimal Fc conformation. We have determined the crystal structure of homogenously glycosylated human IgG3 Fc with a GlcNAc2Man5 (Man5) high mannose glycoform at 1.8 A resolution and compared its structural features with published structures from the other IgG subclasses. Although the overall structure of IgG3 Fc is similar to that of other subclasses, some structural perturbations based on sequence differences were revealed. For instance, the presence of R435 in IgG3 (and H435 in the other IgG subclasses) has been implicated to result in IgG3-specific properties related to binding to protein A, protein G and the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). The IgG3 Fc structure helps to explain some of these differences. Additionally, protein-glycan contacts observed in the crystal structure appear to correlate with IgG3 affinity for Fcy receptors as shown by binding studies with IgG3 Fc glycoforms. Finally, this IgG3 Fc structure provides a template for further studies aimed at engineering the Fc for specific gain of function.