TRIM21 Immune Signaling Is More Sensitive to Antibody Affinity Than Its Neutralization Activity
JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY
Authors: Foss, Stian; Watkinson, Ruth E.; Grevys, Algirdas; McAdam, Martin B.; Bern, Malin; Hoydahl, Lene Stokken; Dalhus, Bjorn; Michaelsen, Terje E.; Sandlie, Inger; James, Leo C.; Andersen, Jan Terje
Ab-coated viruses can be detected in the cytosol by the FcR tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21), which rapidly recruits the proteasomal machinery and triggers induction of immune signaling. As such, TRIM21 plays a key role in intracellular protection by targeting invading viruses for destruction and alerting the immune system. A hallmark of immunity is elicitation of a balanced response that is proportionate to the threat, to avoid unnecessary inflammation. In this article, we show how Ab affinity modulates TRIM21 immune function. We constructed a humanized monoclonal IgG1 against human adenovirus type 5 (AdV5) and a panel of Fc-engineered variants with a wide range of affinities for TRIM21. We found that IgG1-coated viral particles were neutralized via TRIM21, even when affinity was reduced by as much as 100-fold. In contrast, induction of NF-kappa B signaling was more sensitive to reduced affinity between TRIM21 and the Ab variants. Thus, TRIM21 mediates neutralization under suboptimal conditions, whereas induction of immune signaling is balanced according to the functional affinity for the incoming immune stimuli. Our findings have implications for engineering of antiviral IgG therapeutics with tailored effector functions.
Quantification of peptides from immunoglobulin constant and variable regions by LC-MRM MS for assessment of multiple myeloma patients
PROTEOMICS CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
Authors: Remily-Wood, Elizabeth R.; Benson, Kaaron; Baz, Rachid C.; Chen, Y. Ann; Hussein, Mohamad; Hartley-Brown, Monique A.; Sprung, Robert W.; Perez, Brianna; Liu, Richard Z.; Yoder, Sean J.; Teer, Jamie K.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Koomen, John M.
Purpose: Quantitative MS assays for Igs are compared with existing clinical methods in samples from patients with plasma cell dyscrasias, for example, multiple myeloma (MM). Experimental design: Using LC-MS/MS data, Ig constant region peptides, and transitions were selected for LC-MRMMS. Quantitative assays were used to assess Igs in serum from 83 patients. RNA sequencing and peptide-based LC-MRM are used to define peptides for quantification of the disease-specific Ig. Results: LC-MRM assays quantify serum levels of Igs and their isoforms (IgG1-4, IgA1-2, IgM, IgD, and IgE, as well as kappa (kappa) and lambda (lambda) light chains). LC-MRM quantification has been applied to single samples from a patient cohort and a longitudinal study of an IgE patient undergoing treatment, to enable comparison with existing clinical methods. Proof-of-concept data for defining and monitoring variable region peptides are provided using the H929 MM cell line and two MM patients. Conclusions and clinical relevance: LC-MRM assays targeting constant region peptides determine the type and isoform of the involved Ig and quantify its expression; the LC-MRM approach has improved sensitivity compared with the current clinical method, but slightly higher inter-assay variability. Detection of variable region peptides is a promising way to improve Ig quantification, which could produce a dramatic increase in sensitivity over existing methods, and could further complement current clinical techniques.