Long-term effects of intensive B cell depletion therapy in severe cases of IgG4-related disease with renal involvement
Authors: Quattrocchio, Giacomo; Barreca, Antonella; Demarchi, Andrea; Fenoglio, Roberta; Ferro, Michela; Del Vecchio, Giulio; Massara, Carlo; Rollino, Cristiana; Sciascia, Savino; Roccatello, Dario
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated disorder often showing elevated serum IgG4 concentrations, dense T and B lymphocyte infiltration, and IgG4-positive plasma cells and storiform fibrosis. We prospectively evaluated for 4 years 5 patients with histologically proven IgG4-RD of whom 3 had tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) and 2 had retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF). They received an intensive B depletion therapy with rituximab. The estimated glomerular filtration rate of TIN patients after 1 year increased from 9 to 24 ml/min per 1.73 m2. IgG/IgG4 dropped from 3236/665 to 706/51 mg/dl, C3/C4 went up from 49/6 to 99/27 mg/dl, and the IgG4-RD responder index fell from 10 to 1. CD20(+) B cells decreased from 8.7 to 0.5%. A striking drop in interstitial plasma cell infiltrate as well as normalization of IgG4/IgG-positive plasma cells was observed at repeat biopsy. Both clinical and immunological improvement persisted over a 4-year follow-up. Treating these patients who were affected by aggressive IgG4-RD with renal involvement in an effort to induce a prolonged B cells depletion with IgG4 and cytokine production decrease resulted in a considerable rise in eGFR, with IgG4-RD RI normalization and a noteworthy improvement in clinical and histological features. Furthermore, the TIN subgroup was shown not to need for any maintenance therapy.
Glycosylation Alterations in Multiple Sclerosis Show Increased Proinflammatory Potential
Authors: Cvetko, Ana; Kifer, Domagoj; Gornik, Olga; Klaric, Lucija; Visser, Elizabeth; Lauc, Gordan; Wilson, James F.; Stambuk, Tamara
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system (CNS), with unresolved aetiology. Previous studies have implicated N-glycosylation, a highly regulated enzymatic attachment of complex sugars to targeted proteins, in MS pathogenesis. We investigated individual variation in N-glycosylation of the total plasma proteome and of IgG in MS. Both plasma protein and IgG N-glycans were chromatographically profiled and quantified in 83 MS cases and 88 age- and sex-matched controls. Comparing levels of glycosylation features between MS cases and controls revealed that core fucosylation (p = 6.96 x 10(-3)) and abundance of high-mannose structures (p = 1.48 x 10(-2)) were the most prominently altered IgG glycosylation traits. Significant changes in plasma protein N-glycome composition were observed for antennary fucosylated, tri- and tetrasialylated, tri- and tetragalactosylated, high-branched N-glycans (p-value range 1.66 x 10(-2)-4.28 x 10(-2)). Classification performance of N-glycans was examined by ROC curve analysis, resulting in an AUC of 0.852 for the total plasma N-glycome and 0.798 for IgG N-glycome prediction models. Our results indicate that multiple aspects of protein glycosylation are altered in MS, showing increased proinflammatory potential. N-glycan alterations showed substantial value in classification of the disease status, nonetheless, additional studies are warranted to explore their exact role in MS development and utility as biomarkers.