Armenian Hamster IgG Isotype Control [Brilliant Violet 421] (DAGIC550)

Armenian Hamster IgG Isotype Control for FC, ICFC

Additional Formats Available


Host Species
Armenian Hamster
Antibody Isotype
Species Reactivity
Trinitrophenol + KLH
Brilliant Violet 421


Application Notes
*Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrates the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.


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Naturally Acquired Humoral Immunity Against Plasmodium falciparum Malaria


Authors: Gonzales, S. Jake; Reyes, Raphael A.; Braddom, Ashley E.; Batugedara, Gayani; Bol, Sebastiaan; Bunnik, Evelien M.

Malaria remains a significant contributor to the global burden of disease, with around 40% of the world's population at risk of Plasmodium infections. The development of an effective vaccine against the malaria parasite would mark a breakthrough in the fight to eradicate the disease. Over time, natural infection elicits a robust immune response against the blood stage of the parasite, providing protection against malaria. In recent years, we have gained valuable insight into the mechanisms by which IgG acts to prevent pathology and inhibit parasite replication, as well as the potential role of immunoglobulin M (IgM) in these processes. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms, acquisition, and maintenance of naturally acquired immunity, and the relevance of these discoveries for the development of a potential vaccine against the blood stage of Plasmodium falciparum.

Assessment of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the edible goat products pointed out a risk for human infection in Upper Egypt


Authors: El-Mokhtar, Mohamed A.; Elkhawaga, Amal A.; Sayed, Ibrahim M.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is endemic in developed and developing countries. Although the seroprevalence of HEV among the Egyptians is high, the sources of HEV infection in Egypt are not completely identified. Zoonotic HEV transmission among Egyptians is underestimated. Recently, we detected HEV in the milk of cows, this suggests the possibility of HEV transmission through the ingestion of contaminated milk. However, the role of small ruminants especially the goats in HEV epidemiology in Egypt remains unclear. Herein, we screened HEV markers in the edible goat products, mainly the milk and liver and we assessed the risk factor for HEV infection to the goat owners. A total of 280 goat milk samples were collected from 15 villages in the Assiut governorate. Anti-HEV IgG and HEV Ag were detected in 7.14% and 1.8% of the samples, respectively. HEV RNA was detected in 2 milk samples, cladogram analysis revealed that the isolated viruses belonged to HEV-3 subtype 3a. One viral isolate showed high homology to HEV recently isolated from the cow milk in the same geographic area. The level of anti-HEV IgG and HEV Ag were comparable in the milk and matched blood samples. While the urine and stool of HEV seropositive goats tested negative for HEV markers. HEV RNA was also detectable in the fresh goat liver samples (n = 2) derived from HEV seropositive goats. Finally, we analyzed HEV seroprevalence in households (n = 5) that owned the seropositive goats and households (n = 5) that owned the seronegative goats. Interestingly, anti-HEV IgG was recorded in 80% of households owned and frequently consumed the products of HEV seropositive goats, while HEV markers were not detectable in the owners of the seronegative goats. In conclusion: Here, we report HEV in the milk and liver of goats distributed in the villages of Assiut governorate. Higher HEV seroprevalence was recorded in the households that owned the seropositive goats. Investigation of the goat products is pivotal to assess the risk factor of HEV transmission to villagers in the Assiut governorate.

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