Armenian Hamster IgG Isotype Control [APC/Cy7®] (DAGIC546)

Armenian Hamster IgG Isotype Control for FC, ICFC

Additional Formats Available

Specifications


Host Species
Armenian Hamster
Antibody Isotype
IgG
Clone
IUL999
Species Reactivity
N/A
Immunogen
Trinitrophenol + KLH
Conjugate
APC/Cy7®

Applications


Application Notes
FC, ICFC
*Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrates the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.

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References


A Multicentric Study on the Clinical Profile, Serology, Neuroimaging and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH

Authors: Anadure, Ravi K.; Wilson, Vinny; Ragini; Saxena, Rajeev; Mohimen, Aneesh; Sivasankar, Rajeev; Abhisheka, Kumar

Introduction: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease affecting the human brain, and the leading infectious cause of seizures/epilepsy in India. It is often a diagnostic challenge due to varying clinical and imaging presentations. Aim: To describe the clinical profile, serological testing, imaging features and treatment outcomes of NCC, in an Indian population. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study with a case control design was carried out over a period from June 2015 to June 2019, at two Tertiary care hospitals in Mumbai and Bangalore. Seventy four (74) cases who had evidence of parenchymal/extra-parenchymal NCC lesions based on Contrast MRI Brain (1.5 Tesla), were included in the study. Fifty matched controls with Idiopathic epilepsy were also recruited in the study, so as to establish the sensitivity and specificity of the commonly used ELISA test (IgG antibody) for NCC. All patients with viable parenchymal NCC lesions were given standard cysticidal therapy (Albendazole), along with anti-epileptic drugs, as per clinician discretion. Disability at six months follow-up was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Pearson's Chi-square test was used to compare dependent variables. The p-values < 0.05 were accepted as statistically significant. Results: Of the 74 cases with NCC enrolled in the study, 81% (60) were males and the mean age of the population was 36.4 years. Total 91% cases (68) presented with seizures. Neuro-imaging revealed majority of lesions were vesicular (28%). Total 42% (31/74) had Solitary Cystisercal Granuloma (SCG), only 26% (19/74) cases and 8% (4/ 50) controls were positive for the IgG anti-cysticercal antibody by ELISA. This gave the antibody test a sensitivity of 26%, and a specificity of 92%. This translated into a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 83%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 45%, and a positive likelihood ratio of 3.21. In patients who had single or multiple viable parenchymal NCC lesions (57/ 74), cysticidal therapy with Albendazole (under steroid cover) was safe and effective in 88% (50/57) cases. Conclusion: NCC commonly presents with seizures, and is best diagnosed with contrast MR imaging of the brain. The commercially available ELISA based antibody test do not add significantly in the management of this tropical infection. Cysticidal therapy is safe and effective in a majority of the patients, however treatment of extra-parenchymal NCC remains a challenge.

Effects of centrifugation and whole-body vibrations on blood-brain barrier permeability in mice

NPJ MICROGRAVITY

Authors: Dubayle, David; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Beraneck, Mathieu; Vico, Laurence; Morel, Jean-Luc

Modifications of gravity levels induce generalized adaptation of mammalian physiology, including vascular, brain, muscle, bone and immunity functions. As a crucial interface between the vascular system and the brain, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) acts as a filter to protect neurons from pathogens and inflammation. Here we compare the effects of several protocols of hypergravity induced by centrifugation and whole-body vibrations (WBV) on BBB integrity. The immunohistochemistry revealed immunoglobulin G (IgG) extravasation from blood to hippocampal parenchyma of mice centrifuged at 2 x g during 1 or 50 days, whereas short exposures to higher hypergravity mimicking the profiles of spaceflight landing and take-off (short exposures to 5 x g) had no effects. These results suggest prolonged centrifugation (>1 days) at 2 x g induced a BBB leakage. Moreover, WBV were similarly tested. The short exposure to +2 x g vibrations (900 s/day at 90 Hz) repeated for 63 days induced IgG extravasation in hippocampal parenchyma, whereas the progressive increase of vibrations from +0.5 to +2 x g for 63 days was not able to affect the IgG crossing through the BBB. Overall, these results suggest that the BBB permeability is sensitive to prolonged external accelerations. In conclusion, we advise that the protocols of WBV and centrifugation, proposed as countermeasure to spaceflight, should be designed with progressively increasing exposure to reduce potential side effects on the BBB.

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