CsrA Supports both Environmental Persistence and Host-Associated Growth of Acinetobacter baumannii
INFECTION AND IMMUNITY
Authors: Farrow, John M., III; Wells, Greg; Palethorpe, Samantha; Adams, Mark D.; Pesci, Everett C.
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic and frequently multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that primarily infects critically ill individuals. Indirect transmission from patient to patient in hospitals can drive infections, supported by this organism's abilities to persist on dry surfaces and rapidly colonize susceptible individuals. To investigate how A. baumannii survives on surfaces, we cultured A. baumannii in liquid media for several days and then analyzed isolates that lost the ability to survive drying. One of these isolates carried a mutation that affected the gene encoding the carbon storage regulator CsrA. As we began to examine the role of CsrA in A. baumannii, we observed that the growth of Delta csrA mutant strains was inhibited in the presence of amino acids. The Delta csrA mutant strains had a reduced ability to survive drying and to form biofilms but an improved ability to tolerate increased osmolarity compared with the wild type. We also examined the importance of CsrA for A. baumannii virulence. The Delta csrA mutant strains had a greatly reduced ability to kill Galleria mellonella larvae, could not replicate in G. mellonella hemolymph, and also had a growth defect in human serum. Together, these results show that CsrA is essential for the growth of A. baumannii on host-derived substrates and is involved in desiccation tolerance, implying that CsrA controls key functions involved in the transmission of A. baumannii in hospitals.
Discontinuation of nucleos(t)ide analogues is not associated with a higher risk of HBsAg seroreversion after antiviral-induced HBsAg seroclearance: a nationwide multicentre study
Authors: Kim, Minseok Albert; Kim, Seung Up; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Jang, Jeong Won; Lim, Young-Suk; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Shim, Jae-Jun; Seo, Yeon Seok; Baek, Yang Hyun; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Ji Hoon; Choe, Won Hyeok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Hyun Woong; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Lee, Sung Won; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Hwi Young; Park, Yewan; Kim, Gi-Ae; Yang, Hyun; Lee, Han Ah; Koh, Myeongseok; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Minkoo; Chang, Young; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Zoulim, Fabien; Lee, Jeong-Hoon
Objective Direct comparison of the clinical outcomes between nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) discontinuation versus NA continuation has not been performed in patients with chronic hepatitis B who achieved HBsAg-seroclearance. Whether NA discontinuation was as safe as NA continuation after NA-induced surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg) seroclearance was investigated in the present study. Designs This multicentre study included 276 patients from 16 hospitals in Korea who achieved NA-induced HBsAg seroclearance: 131 (47.5%) discontinued NA treatment within 6 months after HBsAg seroclearance (NA discontinuation group) and 145 (52.5%) continued NA treatment (NA continuation group). Primary endpoint was HBsAg reversion and secondary endpoints included serum HBV DNA redetection and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Results During follow-up (median=26.9 months, IQR=12.2-49.2 months), 10 patients (3.6%) experienced HBsAg reversion, 6 (2.2%) showed HBV DNA redetection and 8 (2.9%) developed HCC. Compared with NA continuation, NA discontinuation was not associated with HBsAg reversion in both univariable (HR=0.45, 95% CI=0.12 to 1.76, log-rank p=0.24) and multivariable analyses (adjusted HR=0.65, 95% CI=0.16 to 2.59, p=0.54). The cumulative probabilities of HBsAg reversion at 1, 3 and 5 years were 0.8%, 2.3% and 5.0% in the NA discontinuation group, and 1.5%, 6.3% and 8.4% in the NA continuation group, respectively. NA discontinuation was not associated with higher risk of either HBV redetection (HR=0.83, 95% CI=0.16 to 4.16, log-rank p=0.82) or HCC development (HR=0.53, 95% CI=0.12 to 2.23, log-rank p=0.38). Conclusion The discontinuation of NA was not associated with a higher risk of either HBsAg reversion, serum HBV DNA redetection or HCC development compared with NA continuation among patients who achieved HBsAg seroclearance with NA.