Use of Anthropometry Versus Ultrasound for the Assessment of Body Fat and Comorbidities in Children With Obesity
JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY AND NUTRITION
Authors: El-Koofy, Nehal; Soliman, Hend; Elbarbary, Mennat-Allah; El Garhy, Al Shimaa; Sheba, Maha; Fouad, Hanan
Objectives: We aimed to examine the association between abdominal fat measured by ultrasound and anthropometric indices in children with obesity, and those with normal weight. We also examined the association between anthropometry and fat measures in the prediction of comorbidities in children with obesity. Methods: Forty children with body mass index of >95th percentile were included as cases, and a comparable group of 32 healthy average-weight peers were included as controls in this study. All children underwent clinical assessment, anthropometric measures, and evaluation of abdominal subcutaneous fat (SCF) and visceral fat by ultrasound. Fasting blood sugar, serum transaminases, and lipid profile of all the included children were also evaluated. Results: Children with obesity had a mean age of 8.7 +/- 2.9 years (range 3-13). The SCF and intraperitoneal fat (IPF) values correlated well with each other and with anthropometric measurements in children with obesity. Among all the included cases, 90% were metabolically unhealthy, 70% had hypertension, 52.5% had dyslipidemia, and 22.5% had echogenic liver. Anthropometric measures, abdominal SCF and IPF were higher in children with complications. SCF was observed as a good predictor for hepatic echogenicity among the measured ultrasound parameters (P: 0.03, odds ratio 4.6). The best cutoff value for SCF in cases with hepatic echogenicity was 23.2 mm with an overall accuracy of 80%. Conclusions: In children with obesity, abdominal SCF and IPF correlated well with anthropometric measures and were higher in children with comorbidities. This finding, however, did not predict comorbidities apart from those with echogenic liver.
Delayed full opening of bumped switchable molecular probe enables repeated generation of target analogues for mix-to-signaling determination of microRNAs
SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL
Authors: Ma, Xiaoming; He, Shan; Zhang, Huifang; Li, Xun; Xue, Jun; Fan, Xiaolin; Lu, Yusheng; Chen, Yiting; Zhang, Yanjie; Xu, Jianguo
Herein, we have designed a unique oligonucleotide probe named as bumped switchable molecular probe (BS-MB) and employ it to ultrasensitive detection of miRNA-21. The uniqueness is that the bumped portion renders the BS-MB great design flexibility and divides its long stem into two short stems so that it can play the roles of recognition unit, reporting unit, and polymerization primer and template simultaneously. The opening of BS-MB requires a delayed reaction, allowing the system a better-suppressed background without miRNA-21. In contrast, the introduction of miRNA-21 delayed the full opening of BS-MB, inducing a concurrent three-stage amplification for consuming lots of BS-MBs in one amplification event. During the amplification, lots of target analogues of extended miRNA-21 (E-miRNA-21) and cleavaged miRNA-21 (C-miRNA-21) that can be reused as miRNA-21 to cause further fluorescence enhancement are repeatedly generated. The system retains the simplicity (one oligonucleotide probe) and simplifies the detection procedure (one-step detection). Its mix-to-signaling and oneto-many amplification behaviors are superior to conventional MB based amplification, exhibiting a wide linear response and a low detection limit of 8.1 fM. High specificity against even one-base mutation, desirable recovery rates for testing miRNA-spiked serum samples, and well-defined accuracy for classifying clinically related samples are also demonstrated.