The role of CXCR3 and its ligands expression in Brucellar spondylitis
Authors: Hu, Xin; Shang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Liang; Fan, Jiahui; Wang, Yue; Lv, Jie; Nazierhan, Shaxika; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jing; Ma, Xiumin
Aim Brucellar spondylitis (BS) is one of the most serious complications of brucellosis. CXCR3 is closely related to the severity of disease infection. This research aimed to study the degree of BS inflammatory damage through analyzing the expression levels of CXCR3 and its ligands (CXCL9 and CXCL10) in patients with BS. Methods A total of 29 BS patients and 15 healthy controls were enrolled. Real-Time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of IFN-gamma, CXCR3, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of BS patients and healthy controls. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was used to show the pathological changes in BS lesion tissues. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to show the protein expression levels of Brucella-Ab, IFN-gamma, CXCR3, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in BS lesion tissues. At the same time, ELISA was used to detect the serum levels of IFN-gamma, CXCL9 CXCL10 and autoantibodies against CXCR3 in patients with BS. Results In lesion tissue of BS patients, it showed necrosis of cartilage, acute or chronic inflammatory infiltration. Brucella-Ab protein was abundantly expressed in close lesion tissue. And the protein expression levels of IFN-gamma, CXCR3 and CXCL10 were highly expressed in close lesion tissue and serum of BS patients. At the same time, the mRNA expression levels of IFN-gamma, CXCR3 and CXCL10 in PBMCs of BS patients were significantly higher than those in controls. Conclusion In our research, the expression levels of IFN-gamma, CXCR3 and its ligands were significantly higher than those in controls. It suggested that high expression levels of IFN-gamma, CXCR3 and its ligands indicated a serious inflammatory damage in patients with BS.
Health status is related to testosterone, estrone and body fat: moving to functional hypogonadism in adult men with HIV
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY
Authors: De Vincentis, Sara; Decaroli, Maria Chiara; Fanelli, Flaminia; Diazzi, Chiara; Mezzullo, Marco; Morini, Fabio; Bertani, Davide; Milic, Jovana; Carli, Federica; Cuomo, Gianluca; Santi, Daniele; Tartaro, Giulia; Tagliavini, Simonetta; De Santis, Maria Cristina; Roli, Laura; Trenti, Tommaso; Pagotto, Uberto; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Rochira, Vincenzo
Objective: Hypogonadism is common in HIV-infected men. The relationship between health status, sex steroids and body composition is poorly known in HIV. The aim was to investigate the association between health status (comorbidities/frailty), body composition, and gonadal function in young-to-middle-aged HIV-infected men. Design: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Methods: HIV-infected men aged <50 years and ongoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy were enrolled. Serum total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, LH and FSH by immunoassay. Free testosterone (cFT) was calculated by Vermeulen equation. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal CT scan. Multimorbidity (MM) and frailty were defined as >= 3 comorbidities and by a 37-item index, respectively. Results: A total of 316 HIV-infected men aged 45.3 5.3 years were enrolled. Body fat parameters were inversely related to cFT and TT, and directly related to E1 and E2/testosterone (TS) ratio. Patients with MM had lower cFT (P < 0.0001) and TT (P = 0.036), and higher E1 (P < 0.0001) and E2/TS ratio (P = 0.002). Frailty was inversely related to cFT (R-2 = 0.057, P < 0.0001) and TT (R-2 = 0.013, P = 0.043), and directly related to E1 (R-2 = 0.171, P < 0.0001), E2 (R-2 = 0.041, P = 0.004) and E2/TS ratio (R-2 = 0.104, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Lower TT and cFT, higher E1, E2/TS ratio and visceral fat were independently associated to poor health status and frailty, being possible hallmarks of unhealthy conditions in adult HIV-infected men. Overall, MM, frailty and body fat mass are strictly associated to each other and to sex steroids, concurring together to functional male hypogonadism in HIV.