Construction of succinimide group substituted polythiophene polymer functionalized sensing platform for ultrasensitive detection of KLK 4 cancer biomarker
SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL
Authors: Aydin, Elif Burcu; Aydin, Muhammet; Sezginturk, Mustafa Kemal
A novel impedimetric immunosensor based on conjugated succinimide group substituted polythiophene polymer (SucS-PThi) modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode was fabricated for ultra-sensitive and ultra-selective determination of kallikrein 4 (KLK 4) antigen in diluted human serum. The basic reason for the usage of SucS-PThi polymer was that its rich effective functional groups and biocompatibility. KLK 4, an important prostate biomarker was the target analyte and anti-KLK 4 antibodies immobilized electrode was the diagnostic tool for KLK 4 antigen detection. The fabricated biosensor was characterized by employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. Under optimized conditions, a linear concentration range from 0.04 pg/mL to 30 pg/mL and a low detection limit (LOD) of 12.2 fg/mL were obtained and the LOD was lower than of most of the existing techniques, illustrating its feasibility for practical application. Moreover, the developed sensing system combined the outstanding properties in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, repeatability, reproducibility and reusability, without requiring for labor - intensive labeling stages. In addition, it was successfully utilized for accurate quantification of KLK 4 antigen in human serum samples.
Discontinuation of nucleos(t)ide analogues is not associated with a higher risk of HBsAg seroreversion after antiviral-induced HBsAg seroclearance: a nationwide multicentre study
Authors: Kim, Minseok Albert; Kim, Seung Up; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Jang, Jeong Won; Lim, Young-Suk; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Shim, Jae-Jun; Seo, Yeon Seok; Baek, Yang Hyun; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Ji Hoon; Choe, Won Hyeok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Hyun Woong; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Lee, Sung Won; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Hwi Young; Park, Yewan; Kim, Gi-Ae; Yang, Hyun; Lee, Han Ah; Koh, Myeongseok; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Minkoo; Chang, Young; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Zoulim, Fabien; Lee, Jeong-Hoon
Objective Direct comparison of the clinical outcomes between nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) discontinuation versus NA continuation has not been performed in patients with chronic hepatitis B who achieved HBsAg-seroclearance. Whether NA discontinuation was as safe as NA continuation after NA-induced surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg) seroclearance was investigated in the present study. Designs This multicentre study included 276 patients from 16 hospitals in Korea who achieved NA-induced HBsAg seroclearance: 131 (47.5%) discontinued NA treatment within 6 months after HBsAg seroclearance (NA discontinuation group) and 145 (52.5%) continued NA treatment (NA continuation group). Primary endpoint was HBsAg reversion and secondary endpoints included serum HBV DNA redetection and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Results During follow-up (median=26.9 months, IQR=12.2-49.2 months), 10 patients (3.6%) experienced HBsAg reversion, 6 (2.2%) showed HBV DNA redetection and 8 (2.9%) developed HCC. Compared with NA continuation, NA discontinuation was not associated with HBsAg reversion in both univariable (HR=0.45, 95% CI=0.12 to 1.76, log-rank p=0.24) and multivariable analyses (adjusted HR=0.65, 95% CI=0.16 to 2.59, p=0.54). The cumulative probabilities of HBsAg reversion at 1, 3 and 5 years were 0.8%, 2.3% and 5.0% in the NA discontinuation group, and 1.5%, 6.3% and 8.4% in the NA continuation group, respectively. NA discontinuation was not associated with higher risk of either HBV redetection (HR=0.83, 95% CI=0.16 to 4.16, log-rank p=0.82) or HCC development (HR=0.53, 95% CI=0.12 to 2.23, log-rank p=0.38). Conclusion The discontinuation of NA was not associated with a higher risk of either HBsAg reversion, serum HBV DNA redetection or HCC development compared with NA continuation among patients who achieved HBsAg seroclearance with NA.