A 13-gene risk score system and a nomogram survival model for predicting the prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma
UROLOGIC ONCOLOGY-SEMINARS AND ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS
Authors: Zhang, Chao; Wang, Fubo; Guo, Fei; Ye, Chen; Yang, Yue; Huang, Yuhua; Hou, Jianquan; Tian, Feng; Yang, Bo
Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the second common malignant tumor in the urinary system, and 85% of RCC cases are clear cell RCC (ccRCC). This study is designed to build a risk score system for ccRCC. Methods: The gene methylation and expression data of ccRCC samples were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database (training set) and ArrayExpress database (validation set). The differentially methylated genes (DMGs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by limma package, and their intersecting genes with negative Pearson correlation coefficients were remained using cor.test function. Prognosis-associated genes were identified by survival package, and the optimal DMGs were obtained using penalized package. After risk score system was built, nomogram survival model was constructed using rms package. Additionally, pathways were enriched for the DEGs between high- and low-risk groups using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. Results: There were 3,638 DMGs and 2,702 DEGs between tumor and normal samples. Among the 312 intersecting genes, 43 prognosis-associated genes were identified. A total of 13 optimal DMGs (BTBD19, ADAM8, BGLAP, TNFRSF13C, JPH4, BEST1, GNRH2, UBE2QL1, CHODL, GDF9, UPB1, KCNH3; and ADAMTSL4) were obtained for building the risk score system. After pathological M, pathological T, platelet qualitative, and RS status were revealed to be independent prognostic factors, a nomogram survival model was constructed. For the 920 DEGs between the high- and low-risk samples, 6 significant pathways were enriched. Conclusion: The 13-gene risk score system and the nomogram survival model might be used for prognostic prediction of ccRCC patients. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A whole genome SNP genotyping by DNA microarray and candidate gene association study for kidney stone disease
BMC MEDICAL GENETICS
Authors: Rungroj, Nanyawan; Nettuwakul, Choochai; Sudtachat, Nirinya; Praditsap, Oranud; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Sritippayawan, Suchai; Chuawattana, Duangporn; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai
Background: Kidney stone disease (KSD) is a complex disorder with unknown etiology in majority of the patients. Genetic and environmental factors may cause the disease. In the present study, we used DNA microarray to genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and performed candidate gene association analysis to determine genetic variations associated with the disease. Methods: A whole genome SNP genotyping by DNA microarray was initially conducted in 101 patients and 105 control subjects. A set of 104 candidate genes reported to be involved in KSD, gathered from public databases and candidate gene association study databases, were evaluated for their variations associated with KSD. Results: Altogether 82 SNPs distributed within 22 candidate gene regions showed significant differences in SNP allele frequencies between the patient and control groups (P < 0.05). Of these, 4 genes including BGLAP, AHSG, CD44, and HAO1, encoding osteocalcin, fetuin-A, CD44-molecule and glycolate oxidase 1, respectively, were further assessed for their associations with the disease because they carried high proportion of SNPs with statistical differences of allele frequencies between the patient and control groups within the gene. The total of 26 SNPs showed significant differences of allele frequencies between the patient and control groups and haplotypes associated with disease risk were identified. The SNP rs759330 located 144 bp downstream of BGLAP where it is a predicted microRNA binding site at 3'UTR of PAQR6 - a gene encoding progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VI, was genotyped in 216 patients and 216 control subjects and found to have significant differences in its genotype and allele frequencies (P = 0.0007, OR 2.02 and P = 0.0001, OR 2.02, respectively). Conclusions: Our results suggest that these candidate genes are associated with KSD and PAQR6 comes into our view as the most potent candidate since associated SNP rs759330 is located in the miRNA binding site and may affect mRNA expression level.