Kallikrein-related Peptidase 5 (KLK5) Expression and Distribution in Canine Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma
JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY
Authors: Ortloff, A.; Bustamante, F. A.; Molina, L.; Ojeda, J.; Figueroa, C. D.; Ehrenfeld, P.
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most common types of malignant skin cancer in dogs, representing 3.9-10.4% of all canine skin tumours. Although the metastatic potential of cSCC is debated, it appears to mimic that observed in man. In man, predictive histopathological features for metastasis include tumour depth, lesions >5-6 mm in depth, and invasion of muscle, cartilage or bone. In dogs, some reports have focused on the clinical features and long-term progression of cSCC, but a gold standard treatment has not yet been developed. We explored the protein expression of kallikrein-related peptidase 5 (KLK5), an important modulator of skin homeostasis, in normal canine skin and in examples of cSCC. KLK5 was highly expressed in the upper stratum granulosum, stratum corneum, hair follicles and sweat glands, skin sites where human KLK5 has been shown to be involved in physiological processes including keratinocyte desquamation, antimicrobial defence, lipid permeability and pigmentation. In cSCC, tumour cells at the deep margin, as well as those in the centre of keratin pearls, displayed cytoplasmic expression of KLK5. Some of the KLK5 immunoreactive cells also expressed vimentin, suggesting that they may be undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and therefore have a more invasive behaviour than those expressing only KLK5. KLK5 may be a novel molecular biomarker useful for predicting prognosis of cSSC in dogs. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Inhibition of Human Kallikrein 5 Protease by Triterpenoids from Natural Sources
Authors: Matsubara, Yosuke; Matsumoto, Takashi; Koseki, Junichi; Kaneko, Atsushi; Aiba, Setsuya; Yamasaki, Kenshi
Stratum corneum tryptic enzyme kallikrein 5 (KLK5) is a serine protease that is involved in the cell renewal and maintenance of the skin barrier function. The excessive activation of KLK5 causes an exacerbation of dermatoses, such as rosacea and atopic dermatitis. Some triterpenoids are reported to suppress the serine proteases. We aimed to investigate whether bioactive triterpenoids modulate the KLK5 protease. Nineteen triterpenoids occurring in medicinal crude drugs were evaluated using an enzymatic assay to measure the anti-KLK5 activity. The KLK5-dependent cathelicidin peptide LL-37 production in human keratinocytes was examined using immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Screening assays for evaluating the anti-KLK5 activity revealed that ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, saikosaponin b(1), tumulosic acid and pachymic acid suppressed the KLK5 protease activity, although critical molecular moieties contributing to anti-KLK5 activity were unclarified. Ursolic acid and tumulosic acid suppressed the proteolytic processing of LL-37 in keratinocytes at 10 M; no cytotoxicity was observed. Both triterpenoids were detected in the plasma of rats administered orally with triterpenoid-rich crude drug Jumihaidokuto. Our study reveals that triterpenoids, such as ursolic acid and tumulosic acid, modulate the KLK5 protease activity and cathelicidin peptide production. Triterpenoids may affect the skin barrier function via the regulation of proteases.