Prophylaxis, diagnosis and therapy of infections in patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. 2020 update of the recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society of Hematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO)
ANNALS OF HEMATOLOGY
Authors: Christopeit, Maximilian; Schmidt-Hieber, Martin; Sprute, Rosanne; Buchheidt, Dieter; Hentrich, Marcus; Karthaus, Meinolf; Penack, Olaf; Ruhnke, Markus; Weissinger, Florian; Cornely, Oliver A.; Maschmeyer, Georg
To ensure the safety of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDC/ASCT), evidence-based recommendations on infectious complications after HDC/ASCT are given. This guideline not only focuses on patients with haematological malignancies but also addresses the specifics of HDC/ASCT patients with solid tumours or autoimmune disorders. In addition to HBV and HCV, HEV screening is nowadays mandatory prior to ASCT. For patients with HBs antigen and/or anti-HBc antibody positivity, HBV nucleic acid testing is strongly recommended for 6 months after HDC/ASCT or for the duration of a respective maintenance therapy. Prevention of VZV reactivation by vaccination is strongly recommended. Cotrimoxazole for the prevention ofPneumocystis jiroveciiis supported. Invasive fungal diseases are less frequent after HDC/ASCT, therefore, primary systemic antifungal prophylaxis is not recommended. Data do not support a benefit of protective room ventilation e.g. HEPA filtration. Thus, AGIHO only supports this technique with marginal strength. Fluoroquinolone prophylaxis is recommended to prevent bacterial infections, although a survival advantage has not been demonstrated.
Sero-prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis B virus (HIV-HBV) co-infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the associated risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Authors: Kafeero, Hussein Mukasa; Ndagire, Dorothy; Ocama, Ponsiano; Walusansa, Abdul; Sendagire, Hakim
Background: There is plenitude of information on HIV infection among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care (ANC) in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the epidemiology of HBV-HIV co-infections in the same cohort is not clear despite the common route of transmission of both viruses. The aim of our study was to synthesize data on the prevalence of HBV-HIV co-infection among pregnant women attending ANC in Sub-Saharan Africa to assist in the design of public health interventions to mitigate the challenge. Methods: The study was done in tandem with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) standards and the Cochran's Q test, I-2 statistics for heterogeneity and the prevalence were calculated using commercially available software called MedCalcs (https://www.medcalc.org). A random effect model was used to pool the prevalence since all the heterogeneities were high (>= 78%) and P-het < 0.05 indicated significant heterogeneities. The risk factors and risk differences for HBV-HIV co-infection were analyzed. Any likely sources of heterogeneity were analyzed through sensitivity analysis, meta-regression and sub-group analysis. All analyses were done at 95% level of significance and a P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The overall pooled prevalence of HBV-HIV co-infection among pregnant mothers in sub-Saharan Africa was low 3.302% (95%CI = 2.285 to 4.4498%) with heterogeneities (I-2) of 97.59% (P > 0.0001). Within regional sub group meta-analyses, West Africa had significantly higher prevalence of 5.155% (95% = 2.671 to 8.392%) with heterogeneity (I-2) of 92.25% (P < 0.0001) than any other region (P < 0.001). Articles published from 2004-2010 had significantly higher prevalence of 6.356% (95% = 3.611 to 9.811%) with heterogeneity (I-2) 91.15% (P < 0.0001) compared to those published from 2011 to 2019 (P < 0.001). The HIV positive cohort had significantly higher prevalence of HBV-HIV co-infection of 8.312% (95% CI = 5.806 to 11.22%) with heterogeneity (I-2)94.90% (P < 0.0001) than the mothers sampled from the general population with a prevalence of 2.152% (95% CI = 1.358 to 3.125%) (P < 0.001). The overall and sub group analyses had high heterogeneities (I-2 > 89%, P < 0.0001) but was reduced for South Africa (I-2) = 78.4% (P = 0.0314). Age, marital status and employment were independent factors significantly associated with risk of HBV-HIV co-infection (P < 0.001) but not extent of gravidity and education level (P > 0.05). After meta-regression for year of publication and sample size for HBsAg positivity, the results were not significantly associated with HBV pooled prevalence for sample size (P = 0.146) and year of publication (P = 0.560). Following sensitivity analysis, the HBsAg pooled prevalence slightly increased to 3.429% (95% CI = 2.459 to 4.554%) with heterogeneity I-2 = 96.59% (95% CI = 95.93 to 97.14%), P < 0.0001 Conclusion: There is an urgent need for routine HBV screening among HIV positive pregnant mothers attending antenatal care in sub-Saharan Africa to establish the extent of HBV-HIV co-infection in this cohort. Future studies need to investigate the putative risk factors for HBV-HIV co-infection and prioritize plausible control strategies.