Circulating levels of chemokines in patients with psoriasis vulgaris and their association with disease severity: A case-control study from North India
INDIAN JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY VENEREOLOGY & LEPROLOGY
Authors: Joshi, Neha; Narang, Tarun; Dogra, Sunil; Chhabra, Seema
Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by hyperproliferation and incomplete differentiation of epidermis, and accumulation of neutrophils and proinflammatory T cells in epidermis and dermis. Chemokines are believed to be the main players mediating the chemotaxis of leucocytes to the lesional site. Previous studies have established the role of various chemokine ligands and receptors at the lesional site in psoriasis. Aims: In this study, we have compared the serum levels of various chemokines, namely, inducible protein-10 (IP-10) (CXCL10), MCP-1 (CCL-2), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) (CXCL-9), RANTES (CCL5), interleukin (IL)-8, and eotaxin in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis with that of healthy controls. We also studied whether the chemokine levels varied within different patient groups based on various clinical and demographic parameters, and if any of these chemokines correlated with disease activity. Methods: We studied 40 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis from a single center. Their clinical and demographic details were recorded in predesigned prforma. Patients with unstable forms of psoriasis like guttate, erythrodermic, or pustular psoriasis were excluded. The serum chemokine levels were measured by flow cytometry-based bead array set system. The serum levels of the patients were compared with that of 25 healthy controls. A subgroup analysis was also done to study the correlation of chemokine levels with age, sex, duration, and severity of disease. Results: We observed a significant decrease in serum level of all these chemokines in patients, when compared with that of healthy controls. We also found that MIG levels showed a positive correlation with disease severity based on Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Limitations: The major limitation of the study is lack of data on the lesional chemokine levels compared to serum chemokines. Conclusion: The inflammatory process in psoriasis is orchestrated through chemokines. MIG is a potential serum biomarker for assessing disease severity.
Chemokine gene expression influences metastasis and survival time of female dogs with mammary carcinoma
VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGY
Authors: Ariyarathna, Harsha; Thomson, Neroli; Aberdein, Danielle; Munday, John S.
Chemokines are signaling proteins secreted by immune cells which regulate leukocyte trafficking. The aberrant expression of chemokines and their receptors by neoplastic cells influences the behaviour of many human cancers. This study evaluated gene-expression of the chemokines: CCL5, CXCL10, CXCL12 and the chemokine receptors: CXCR3, CXCR4, CXCR7, CCR4, CCR9 in 41 histologically-malignant, outcome-known, canine mammary tumours. These chemokines and chemokine receptors were selected as all were previously shown to influence the behaviour of human breast cancers. The expression of chemokines CCL5 and CXCL12 were significantly higher in tumours which subsequently metastasised than tumours that did not metastasise (p < 0.05). Increased expression of these chemokines was also correlated with shorter survival times of the dogs (CCL5: r(s) = -0.40, p = 0.02, CXCL12: r(s) = -0.40, p = 0.03) while CCL5 was independently prognostic of survival times (p = 0.026). A significantly higher proportion of tumours that subsequently metastasised expressed CXCR3 (p = 0.037), CXCR4 (p = 0.026), CXCR7 (p = 0.025) and CCR9 (p = 0.039) receptors while the survival times of the dogs with tumours that expressed CXCR4 (p = 0.045) and CCR9 (p = 0.039) receptors were significantly shorter than dogs with tumours that did not express these receptors. Chemokine and chemokine receptor gene-expression has not been previously correlated with disease outcome of canine mammary tumours. These findings indicate that altered expression of chemokines and their receptors influences the behaviour of canine mammary tumours suggesting a potential role of them as prognostic markers or therapeutic targets.