Protective effect of Echinochrome against intrahepatic cholestasis induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate in rats
BRAZILIAN JOURNAL OF BIOLOGY
Authors: Fahmy, Sohair R.; Sayed, Dawlat A.; Soliman, Amel M.; Almortada, Nesreen Y.; Abd-El Aal, Wafaa E.
The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of echinochrome (Ech) on intrahepatic cholestasis in rats induced by a single (i.p.) injection of alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) (75 mg/kg body weight). The rats were pre-treated orally for 48hr (one dose / 24hr) with Ech (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) 80 mg/kg body weight drug then, injected with ANIT. ANIT markedly increased serum activities of alanine amino transaminase (ALT), aspartate amino transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which was accompanied by a massive inflammation of epithelial cells on bile duct at 24h after ANIT injection. ANIT also increased the levels of total protein (TP), total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DB), indirect bilirubin (IB), however decrease albumin content (ALB). In addition ANIT increased hepatic MDA and NO level and decreased GSH level and GST activity. The Ech exerted hepatoprotective and anticholestatic effects as assessed by a significant decrease in the activities of serum AST, ALT and ALP, and the levels of TP, TB, DB and TB as well as liver MDA level and NO level. In conclusion, Ech was found to possess hepatoprotective effect against intrahepatic cholestasis induced by hepatotoxin such as ANIT.
Heterogeneous response of Wuchereria bancrofti-infected persons to diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and its implications for the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF)
Authors: Sankari, Thirumal; Subramanian, Swaminathan; Hoti, Subhash L.; Pani, Subhada P.; Jambulingam, Purushothaman; Das, Pradeep K.
DEC or ivermectin (IVM) in combination with albendazole (ALB) has been the recommended strategy of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) since 2000. Despite effective population coverage (> 65%) with several rounds of MDA with DEC or combination of DEC plus ALB, microfilariae persist in few individuals and they continue to be the source of infection for transmitting LF. We report an individual's variability in response to DEC by defining the response as complete absence of microfilaria (mf) (post-treatment mf count = 0) and non-response as presence of mf (post-treatment mf count >= 1). We analyzed follow-up data on individual's response to treatment from two randomized clinical trials in which 46 microfilaremic individuals were treated with single-dose DEC (6 mg/kg body weight). They were classified into low, medium, and high mf density categories based on their pre-treatment mf counts. Of the 46 individuals, 65.2% have not responded throughout the 12-month post-treatment period. Application of a logistic regression model with fixed (age, gender, mf density, post-treatment time, and their interactions) and random (individual's response over time) effects indicated that treatment response is independent of age, gender, and time. The overall treatment response increases in low and decreases in high mf density categories. Furthermore, the estimates for the random coefficients model showed that there is a greater variability in response between individuals over post-treatment time. The results substantiate that individual variation in response to DEC exists which indicate the importance of studying the parasite as well as host genetic factors associated with DEC action.