The role of CXCR3 and its ligands expression in Brucellar spondylitis
Authors: Hu, Xin; Shang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Liang; Fan, Jiahui; Wang, Yue; Lv, Jie; Nazierhan, Shaxika; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jing; Ma, Xiumin
Aim Brucellar spondylitis (BS) is one of the most serious complications of brucellosis. CXCR3 is closely related to the severity of disease infection. This research aimed to study the degree of BS inflammatory damage through analyzing the expression levels of CXCR3 and its ligands (CXCL9 and CXCL10) in patients with BS. Methods A total of 29 BS patients and 15 healthy controls were enrolled. Real-Time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of IFN-gamma, CXCR3, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of BS patients and healthy controls. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was used to show the pathological changes in BS lesion tissues. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to show the protein expression levels of Brucella-Ab, IFN-gamma, CXCR3, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in BS lesion tissues. At the same time, ELISA was used to detect the serum levels of IFN-gamma, CXCL9 CXCL10 and autoantibodies against CXCR3 in patients with BS. Results In lesion tissue of BS patients, it showed necrosis of cartilage, acute or chronic inflammatory infiltration. Brucella-Ab protein was abundantly expressed in close lesion tissue. And the protein expression levels of IFN-gamma, CXCR3 and CXCL10 were highly expressed in close lesion tissue and serum of BS patients. At the same time, the mRNA expression levels of IFN-gamma, CXCR3 and CXCL10 in PBMCs of BS patients were significantly higher than those in controls. Conclusion In our research, the expression levels of IFN-gamma, CXCR3 and its ligands were significantly higher than those in controls. It suggested that high expression levels of IFN-gamma, CXCR3 and its ligands indicated a serious inflammatory damage in patients with BS.
Real-time glomerular filtration rate: improving sensitivity, accuracy and prognostic value in acute kidney injury
CURRENT OPINION IN CRITICAL CARE
Authors: Schneider, Antoine G.; Molitoris, Bruce A.
Purpose of review Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and associated with high patient mortality, and accelerated progression to chronic kidney disease. Our ability to diagnose and stratify patients with AKI is paramount for translational progress. Unfortunately, currently available methods have major pitfalls. Serum creatinine is an insensitive functional biomarker of AKI, slow to register the event and influenced by multiple variables. Cystatin C, a proposed alternative, requires long laboratory processing and also lacks specificity. Other techniques are either very cumbersome (inuline, iohexol) or involve administration of radioactive products, and are therefore, not applicable on a large scale. Recent findings The development of two optical measurement techniques utilizing novel minimally invasive techniques to quantify kidney function, independent of serum or urinary measurements is advancing. Utilization of both one and two compartmental models, as well as continuous monitoring, are being developed. The clinical utility of rapid GFR measurements in AKI patients remains unknown as these disruptive technologies have not been tested in studies exploring clinical outcomes. However, these approaches have the potential to improve our understanding of AKI and clinical care. This overdue technology has the potential to individualize patient care and foster therapeutic success in AKI.