Automatic Shadow Detection for Multispectral Satellite Remote Sensing Images in Invariant Color Spaces
Authors: Han, Hongyin; Han, Chengshan; Lan, Taiji; Huang, Liang; Hu, Changhong; Xue, Xucheng
Shadow often results in difficulties for subsequent image applications of multispectral satellite remote sensing images, like object recognition and change detection. With continuous improvement in both spatial and spectral resolutions of satellite remote sensing images, a more serious impact occurs on satellite remote sensing image interpretation due to the existence of shadow. Though various shadow detection methods have been developed, problems of both shadow omission and nonshadow misclassification still exist for detecting shadow well in high-resolution multispectral satellite remote sensing images. These shadow detection problems mainly include high small shadow omission and typical nonshadow misclassification (like bluish and greenish nonshadow misclassification, and large dark nonshadow misclassification). For further resolving these problems, a new shadow index is developed based on the analysis of the property difference between shadow and the corresponding nonshadow with several multispectral band components (i.e., near-infrared, red, green and blue components) and hue and intensity components in various invariant color spaces (i.e., HIS, HSV, CIELCh, YCbCr and YIQ), respectively. The shadow mask is further acquired by applying an optimal threshold determined automatically on the shadow index image. The final shadow image is further optimized with a definite morphological operation of opening and closing. The proposed algorithm is verified with many images from WorldView-3 and WorldView-2 acquired at different times and sites. The proposed algorithm performance is particularly evaluated by qualitative visual sense comparison and quantitative assessment of shadow detection results in comparative experiments with two WorldView-3 test images of Tripoli, Libya. Both the better visual sense and the higher overall accuracy (over 92% for the test image Tripoli-1 and approximately 91% for the test image Tripoli-2) of the experimental results together deliver the excellent performance and robustness of the proposed shadow detection approach for shadow detection of high-resolution multispectral satellite remote sensing images. The proposed shadow detection approach is promised to further alleviate typical shadow detection problems of high small shadow omission and typical nonshadow misclassification for high-resolution multispectral satellite remote sensing images.
The Proteome and Secretome of Cortical Brain Cells Infected With Herpes Simplex Virus
FRONTIERS IN NEUROLOGY
Authors: Hensel, Niko; Raker, Verena; Foerthmann, Benjamin; Buch, Anna; Sodeik, Beate; Pich, Andreas; Claus, Peter
Infections of the brain with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) cause life-threatening Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) characterized by viral replication in neurons and neuro-inflammation including an infiltration of peripheral immune cells. HSV-1 reprograms host cells to foster its own replication and for immune evasion, but eventually the immune responses clear the infection in most patients. However, many survivors suffer from long-term neuronal damage and cannot regenerate all brain functions. HSV-1 influences the physiology of neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia, and significantly changes their protein expression and secretion pattern. To characterize temporal changes upon HSV-1 infection in detail, we inoculated mixed primary cultures of the murine brain cortex, and performed quantitative mass spectrometry analyses of the cell-associated proteome and the secretome. We identified 28 differentially regulated host proteins influencing inflammasome formation and intracellular vesicle trafficking during endocytosis and secretion. The NIMA-related kinase 7 (NEK7), a critical component of the inflammasome, and ArfGap1, a regulator of endocytosis, were significantly up-regulated upon HSV-1 infection. In the secretome, we identified 71 proteins including guidance cues regulating axonal regeneration, such as semaphorin6D, which were enriched in the conditioned media of HSV-1 infected cells. Modulation of inflammasome activity and intracellular membrane traffic are critical for HSV-1 cell entry, virus assembly, and intracellular spread. Our proteome analysis provides first clues on host factors that might dampen the inflammasome response and modulate intracellular vesicle transport to promote HSV infection of the brain. Furthermore, our secretome analysis revealed a set of proteins involved in neuroregeneration that might foster neuronal repair processes to restore brain functions after clearance of an HSV-1 infection.