Characterization of a Novel Alphaherpesvirus Isolated from the Fruit Bat Pteropus lylei in Vietnam
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
Authors: Inagaki, Takuya; Yamada, Souichi; Fujii, Hikaru; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Shibamura, Miho; Harada, Shizuko; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Le, Mai Quynh; Nguyen, Co Thach; Nguyen, Thi Thu Thuy; Nguyen, Thanh Thuy; Quach, Van Tay; Thong, Vu Dinh; Mori, Kazuki; Sasaki, Michihito; Setiyono, Agus; Handharyani, Ekowati; Takeyama, Haruko; Hasebe, Futoshi; Saijo, Masayuki
Herpesviruses exist in nature within each host animal. Ten herpesviruses have been isolated from bats and their biological properties reported. A novel bat alphaherpesvirus, which we propose to name "Pteropus lylei-associated alphaherpesvirus (PLAHV)," was isolated from urine of the fruit bat Pteropus lylei in Vietnam and characterized. The entire genome sequence was determined to be 144,008 bp in length and predicted to include 72 genes. PLAHV was assigned to genus Simplexvirus with other bat alphaherpesviruses isolated from pteropodid bats in Southeast Asia and Africa. The replication capacity of PLAHV in several cells was evaluated in comparison with that of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). PLAHV replicated better in the bat-originated cell line and less in human embryonic lung fibroblasts than HSV-1 did. PLAHV was serologically related to another bat alphaherpesvirus, Pteropodid alphaherpesvirus 1 (PtAHV1), isolated from a Pteropus hypomelanus-related bat captured in Indonesia, but not with HSV-1. PLAHV caused lethal infection in mice. PLAHV was as susceptible to acyclovir as HSV-1 was. Characterization of this new member of bat alphaherpesviruses, PLAHV, expands the knowledge on bat-associated alphaherpesvirology. IMPORTANCE A novel bat alphaherpesvirus, Pteropus lylei-associated alphaherpesvirus (PLAHV), was isolated from urine of the fruit bat Pteropus lylei in Vietnam. The wholegenome sequence was determined and was predicted to include 72 open reading frames in the 144,008-bp genome. PLAHV is circulating in a species of fruit bats, Pteropus lylei, in Asia. This study expands the knowledge on bat-associated alphaherpesvirology.
Depletion of senescent-like neuronal cells alleviates cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in mice
Authors: Acklin, Scarlett; Zhang, Manchao; Du, Wuying; Zhao, Xin; Plotkin, Matthew; Chang, Jianhui; Campisi, Judith; Zhou, Daohong; Xia, Fen
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is among the most common dose-limiting adverse effects of cancer treatment, leading to dose reduction and discontinuation of life-saving chemotherapy and a permanently impaired quality of life for patients. Currently, no effective treatment or prevention is available. Senescence induced during cancer treatment has been shown to promote the adverse effects. Here, we show that cisplatin induces senescent-like neuronal cells in primary culture and in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG), as determined by the characteristic senescence markers including senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, accumulation of cytosolic p16(INK4A) and HMGB1, as well as increased expression of p16Ink4a, p21, and MMP-9. The accumulation of senescent-like neuronal cells in DRG is associated with cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) in mice. To determine if depletion of senescent-like neuronal cells may effectively mitigate CIPN, we used a pharmacological 'senolytic' agent, ABT263, which inhibits the anti-apoptotic proteins BCL-2 and BCL-xL and selectively kills senescent cells. Our results demonstrated that clearance of DRG senescent neuronal cells reverses CIPN, suggesting that senescent-like neurons play a role in CIPN pathogenesis. This finding was further validated using transgenic p16-3MR mice, which permit ganciclovir (GCV) to selectively kill senescent cells expressing herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK). We showed that CIPN was alleviated upon GCV administration to p16-3MR mice. Together, the results suggest that clearance of senescent DRG neuronal cells following platinum-based cancer treatment might be an effective therapy for the debilitating side effect of CIPN.