Identification of an antiviral compound isolated fromPistacia lentiscus
ARCHIVES OF MICROBIOLOGY
Authors: Bouslama, Lamjed; Benzekri, Roudaina; Nsaibia, Siwar; Papetti, Adele; Limam, Ferid
This study screened mastic gum (Pistacia lentiscusL.) for antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), coxsackievirus type B3, and adenovirus type 5. The organs of this plant (leaves, stem, and seed) were macerated sequentially using solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol). Only the methanol extract of stem exhibited significant activity against HSV-2. This extract showed anti-HSV-2 activity with a selectivity index of 51 (50% cytotoxic concentration = 186 mu g/mL; 50% inhibitory concentration = 3.63 mu g/mL), and demonstrated direct inhibition against this virus with a virucidal selectivity index of 620 (50% virucidal concentration = 0.30 mu g/mL). A bio-guided assay involving thin-layer chromatography led to the isolation of two active compounds, which have been identified as dammaradienone and dammaradienol using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.P. lentiscushas been widely studied for other biological activities. However, to our knowledge, this is the first report ofP. lentiscusL. exhibiting antiviral activity.
BX795 demonstrates potent antiviral benefits against herpes simplex Virus-1 infection of human cell lines
Authors: Iqbal, Aqsa; Suryawanshi, Rahul; Yadavalli, Tejabhiram; Volety, Ipsita; Shukla, Deepak
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection is known to cause skin blisters, keratitis as well as deadly cases of encephalitis in some situations. Only a few therapeutic modalities are available for this globally prevalent infection. Very recently, a small molecule BX795 was identified as an inhibitor of HSV-1 protein synthesis in an ocular model of infection. In order to demonstrate its broader antiviral benefits, this study was aimed at evaluating the antiviral efficacy, mode-of-action, and toxicity of BX795 against HSV-1 infection of three human cell lines: HeLa, HEK, and HCE. Several different assays, including cell survival analysis, imaging, plaque analysis, Immunoblotting, and qRT-PCR, were performed. In all cases, BX795 demonstrated low toxicity at therapeutic concentration and showed strong antiviral benefits. Quite interestingly, cell line-dependent differences in the mechanism of antiviral action and cytokine response to infection were seen upon BX795 treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that BX795 may exert its antiviral benefits via cell-line specific mechanisms.