Characterization of a Novel Alphaherpesvirus Isolated from the Fruit Bat Pteropus lylei in Vietnam
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
Authors: Inagaki, Takuya; Yamada, Souichi; Fujii, Hikaru; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Shibamura, Miho; Harada, Shizuko; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Le, Mai Quynh; Nguyen, Co Thach; Nguyen, Thi Thu Thuy; Nguyen, Thanh Thuy; Quach, Van Tay; Thong, Vu Dinh; Mori, Kazuki; Sasaki, Michihito; Setiyono, Agus; Handharyani, Ekowati; Takeyama, Haruko; Hasebe, Futoshi; Saijo, Masayuki
Herpesviruses exist in nature within each host animal. Ten herpesviruses have been isolated from bats and their biological properties reported. A novel bat alphaherpesvirus, which we propose to name "Pteropus lylei-associated alphaherpesvirus (PLAHV)," was isolated from urine of the fruit bat Pteropus lylei in Vietnam and characterized. The entire genome sequence was determined to be 144,008 bp in length and predicted to include 72 genes. PLAHV was assigned to genus Simplexvirus with other bat alphaherpesviruses isolated from pteropodid bats in Southeast Asia and Africa. The replication capacity of PLAHV in several cells was evaluated in comparison with that of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). PLAHV replicated better in the bat-originated cell line and less in human embryonic lung fibroblasts than HSV-1 did. PLAHV was serologically related to another bat alphaherpesvirus, Pteropodid alphaherpesvirus 1 (PtAHV1), isolated from a Pteropus hypomelanus-related bat captured in Indonesia, but not with HSV-1. PLAHV caused lethal infection in mice. PLAHV was as susceptible to acyclovir as HSV-1 was. Characterization of this new member of bat alphaherpesviruses, PLAHV, expands the knowledge on bat-associated alphaherpesvirology. IMPORTANCE A novel bat alphaherpesvirus, Pteropus lylei-associated alphaherpesvirus (PLAHV), was isolated from urine of the fruit bat Pteropus lylei in Vietnam. The wholegenome sequence was determined and was predicted to include 72 open reading frames in the 144,008-bp genome. PLAHV is circulating in a species of fruit bats, Pteropus lylei, in Asia. This study expands the knowledge on bat-associated alphaherpesvirology.
Post liver transplant recurrent and de novo viral infections
BEST PRACTICE & RESEARCH CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY
Authors: Jothimani, Dinesh; Venugopal, Radhika; Vij, Mukul; Rela, Mohamed
Survival following liver transplantation has changed dramatically owing to improvement in surgical techniques, peri-operative care and optimal immunosuppressive therapy. Post-Liver transplant (LT) de novo or recurrent viral infection continues to cause major allograft dysfunction, leading to poor graft and patient survival in untreated patients. Availability of highly effective antiviral drugs has significantly improved post-LT survival. Patients transplanted for chronic hepatitis B infection should receive life-long nucleos(t)ide analogues, with or without HBIg for effective viral control. Patients with chronic hepatitis C should be commenced on directly acting antiviral (DAA) drugs prior to transplantation. DAA therapy for post-LT recurrent hepatitis C infection is associated with close to 100% sustained virological response (SVR), irrespective of genotype. De novo chronic Hepatitis E infection is an increasingly recognised cause of allograft dysfunction in LT recipients. Untreated chronic HEV infection of the graft may lead to liver fibrosis and allograft failure. CMV and EBV can reactivate leading to systemic illness following liver transplantation. With COVID-19 pandemic, post-transplant patients are at risk of SARS-Co-V2 infection. Majority of the LT recipients require hospitalization, and the mortality in this population is around 20%. Early recognition of allograft dysfunction and identification of viral aetiology is essential in the management of post-LT de novo or recurrent infections. Optimising immunosuppression is an important step in reducing the severity of allograft damage in the treatment of post-transplant viral infections. Viral clearance or control can be achieved by early initiation of high potency antiviral therapy. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.