Human T-cell lymphotropic Virus antibody, HTLV (1+2) Ab ELISA Kit (DEIA079)

Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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Size
96T
Sample
serum, plasma
Species Reactivity
Human
Intended Use
This ELISA kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for qualitative detection of antibodies to Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus types 1 and/or 2 (HTLV-1/2) in human serum or plasma. It is intended for screening of blood donors and as an aid for the diagnosis of clinical conditions related to infection with HTLV-1 and/or HTLV-2.
Contents of Kit
1. Microwell plate
2. Negative Control: 1x0.5ml
3. Positive Control: 1x0.5ml
4. HRP-Conjugate: 1x6ml
5. Wash Buffer: 1x50ml
6. Chromogen Solution A: 1x7ml
7. Chromogen Solution B: 1x7ml
8. Stop Solution: 1x7ml
Storage
The components of the kit will remain stable through the expiration date indicated on the label and package when stored between 2-8°C, do not freeze. To assure maximum performance of this ELISA kit, during storage, protect the reagents from contamination with microorganism or chemicals.
Performance Characteristics
The clinical performances of this assay have been evaluated by a panel of samples obtained from 22145 healthy blood donors from 3 blood banks and by a panel of samples from 125 HTLV 1/2 positive patients (105 HTLV 1 and 20 HTLV 2 samples from patients with well characterized clinical history and confirmed Western Blot and PCR positive results). The evaluation results are given below.

Analytical Specificity:
No cross reactivity was observed with specimens from patients infected with HAV, HCV, HBV, HIV, CMV and TP.
No interference was observed from rheumatoid factors up to 2000U/ml.
No high dose hook effect observed during clinical testing.
The assay performance characteristics are unaffected from elevated concentrations of bilirubin, hemoglobin, and triolein.
Frozen specimens have been tested to check for interferences due to collection and storage.

Performance on BBI anti-HTLV panel:


Performance on Pasteur Institute anti-HTLV panel:
General Description
The human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) is a member of the family of Retroviridae, consisting of enveloped double stranded RNA viruses and genetically not related to HIV1&2; however, they have similar routes of transmission and can have extremely long period of latency prior to manifestation of disease. HTLV type 1 was reported in 1980 as the first retrovirus shown to be pathogenic to humans. The virus preferentially infects CD4+ lymphocytes while the infections of CD8+ T lymphocytes are rare. In contrast to HTLV 1, HTLV type 2 can infect all type of lymphocytes as well as the macrophages. HTLV 1&2 is transmitted transplacentally, parenterally, by sexual contacts and by infected blood. The diseases associated with HTLV infection are usually classified as malignant or nonmalignant clinical presentations. HTLV 1 is endemic in southern Japan, the Caribbean and the US and many other scattered population through the world. HTLV 2 is endemic in some North American Indian tribes but is detected mostly in intravenous drug users and their sexual partners.

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References


Neurological Aspects of HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 Coinfection

PATHOGENS

Authors: Araujo, Abelardo Q. -C.

Simultaneous infection by human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) are not uncommon since they have similar means of transmission and are simultaneously endemic in many populations. Besides causing severe immune dysfunction, these viruses are neuropathogenic and can cause neurological diseases through direct and indirect mechanisms. Many pieces of evidence at present show that coinfection may alter the natural history of general and, more specifically, neurological disorders through different mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the current evidence on the influence of coinfection on the progression and outcome of neurological complications of HTLV-1/2 and HIV-1.

Balance Impairments in Patients with Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection

SCIENTIFIC REPORTS

Authors: Vasconcelos, Beatriz Helena B.; Callegari, Bianca; Costa, Kelly Helorany A.; Barroso, Tatiana G. C. P.; Sousa, Rita Catarina M.; Saunier, Ghislain; Xavier, Marilia B.; Souza, Givago S.

The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus from the Retroviridae family that infects cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)T-lymphocytes and stimulates their proliferation. A severe consequence of this infection can be the HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), which is associated with a progressive demyelinating disease of the upper motor neurons. The HAM/TSP conditions frequently present with neurological complaints such as gait impairment, sphincter disturbances, and several sensory losses. We compared findings from the posturographic evaluation from the asymptomatic HTLV-1 infected subjects, HTLV-1 infected subjects having HAM/TSP, and control group database. A force plate was used to record the postural oscillations. Analysis of variance and multivariate linear discriminant analysis were used to compare the data obtained from the three groups of participants. In general, HAM/TSP patients had worse postural balance control than did the HTLV-1 patients and the controls (p < 0.05). We found that in six out of ten parameters of the postural balance control, there was a gradual increase in impairment from control to HTLV-1 to HAM/TSP groups. All parameters had higher values with the subject's eyes closed. The multivariate linear discriminant analysis showed there was a reasonable difference in results between the control and HAM/TSP groups, and the HTLV-1 group was at the intersecting area between them. We found that HAM/TSP patients had worse balance control than did HTLV-1 infected patients and the control group, but asymptomatic HTLV-1 infected patients represent an intermediate balance control status between controls and HAM/TSP patients. Posturographic parameters can be relied on to identify subtle changes in the balance of HTLV-1 patients and to monitor their functional loss. HTLV-1 is a tropical disease that can be transmitted by sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, and breast-feeding. Some infected subjects develop an HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropica I spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a condition characterized by spasticity, weakness in lower limbs, and difficulty in walking long distances and going up and down the stairs, besides the history of falls. We compared the body oscillations using a force plate to investigate the postural balance control. HTLV-1 infected patients had imbalance that could be identified by posturographic parameters. Patients with HAM/TSP clearly had balance impairments, while HTLV-1 without HAM/TSP had a subtle impairment that was not seen on clinical scales, suggesting that these patients were in the middle between healthy and HAM/TSP patients, and carried a risk of developing severe imbalance postural control. We suggest that more research should be done with the aim to identify the subtle signs in asymptomatic HTLV-1 patients to investigate if this group of patients need attention similar to the HAM/TSP patients.

Human, T., and Antibodies Seroprevlance. "Research Article Current Research in Oncology CRIO-110." Current Research in Oncology 2019.01.

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