Herpes simplex virus infections during pregnancy: epidemiology, clinical presentation and management
Authors: Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Driessen, Marine; Pichon, Christine; Sellier, Yann; Charlier, Caroline
The incidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) neonatal infection is estimated to be 8.9 per 100,000 live births in Europe. Early treatment with intravenous acyclovir has transformed the prognosis but this infection remains severe since, despite the treatment, mortality is frequent in disseminated diseases and neurological sequelae are frequent when central nervous system is involved. The major risk factor for transmission is the type of maternal infection. In women shedding the virus in their genital tract during childbirth, neonatal infection rates are 44 %, 25 % and 1.3 % in primary, non-primary and recurrent infections, respectively. The goals for the management of this infection during pregnancy encompass 1) the prevention of any contact between the newborn and the maternal virus by suppressing viral replication in the genital tract in late pregnancy and recommending a cesarean section in cases of genital lesions at delivery, and 2) the development of strategies allowing rapid identification and treatment of infected newborns.
Outcomes of Young Infants with Hypothermia Evaluated in the Emergency Department
JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
Authors: Ramgopal, Sriram; Noorbakhsh, Kathleen A.; Pruitt, Christopher M.; Aronson, Paul L.; Alpern, Elizabeth R.; Hickey, Robert W.
Objective To assess the prevalence of serious infections and mortality among infants <= 90 days of age presenting to the emergency department with hypothermia. Study design We performed a cross-sectional cohort study of infants <= 90 days presenting to any of 40 EDs in the Pediatric Health Information Systems between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2018. Infants with an International Classification of Diseases, ninth or tenth edition, admission/discharge diagnosis code of hypothermia were included. We determined the prevalence of serious bacterial infection (urinary tract infection, bacteremia, and/or bacterial meningitis), pneumonia, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, and emergency department/hospital mortality. Results We included 3565 infants (1633 male [50.9%] and 3225 <= 30 days of age [90.5%]). Most (65.0%) presented in the first week of life. There were 389 infants (10.8%) with a complex chronic condition. The prevalence of serious bacterial infection was 8.0% (n = 284), including 2.4% (n = 87) with urinary tract infection, 5.6% (n = 199) with bacteremia, and 0.3% (n = 11) with bacterial meningitis. There were 7 patients (0.2%) with neonatal HSV and 9 (0.3%) with pneumonia; 0.2% (n = 6) died. The presence of a complex chronic condition was associated with the presence of serious bacterial infection (P<.001) and was present in 3 of 6 patients who died. In a sensitivity analysis including patients with any diagnosis code of hypothermia (n = 8122), 14.9% had serious bacterial infection, 0.6% had HSV, and 3.3% had pneumonia; 2.0% died. Conclusions Of infants with hypothermia <= 90 days of age, 8.3% had serious bacterial infections or HSV. Compared with literature from febrile infants, hypothermia is associated with a high mortality rate. Complex chronic conditions were particularly associated with poor outcomes. Additional research is required to risk stratify young infants with hypothermia.