A genome-wide screen of Epstein-Barr virus proteins that modulate host SUMOylation identifies a SUMO E3 ligase conserved in herpesviruses
Authors: De La Cruz-Herrera, Carlos F.; Shire, Kathy; Siddiqi, Umama Z.; Frappier, Lori
Many cellular processes pertinent for viral infection are regulated by the addition of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO) to key regulatory proteins, making SUMOylation an important mechanism by which viruses can commandeer cellular pathways. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a master at manipulating of cellular processes, which enables life-long infection but can also lead to the induction of a variety of EBV-associated cancers. To identify new mechanisms by which EBV proteins alter cells, we screened a library of 51 EBV proteins for global effects on cellular SUMO1 and SUMO2 modifications (SUMOylation), identifying several proteins not previously known to manipulate this pathway. One EBV protein (BRLF1) globally induced the loss of SUMOylated proteins, in a proteasome-dependent manner, as well as the loss of promeylocytic leukemia nuclear bodies. However, unlike its homologue (Rta) in Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus, it did not appear to have ubiquitin ligase activity. In addition we identified the EBV SM protein as globally upregulating SUMOylation and showed that this activity was conserved in its homologues in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1 UL54/ICP27) and cytomegalovirus (CMV UL69). All three viral homologues were shown to bind SUMO and Ubc9 and to have E3 SUMO ligase activity in a purified system. These are the first SUMO E3 ligases discovered for EBV, HSV1 and CMV. Interestingly the homologues had different specificities for SUMO1 and SUMO2, with SM and UL69 preferentially binding SUMO1 and inducing SUMO1 modifications, and UL54 preferentially binding SUMO2 and inducing SUMO2 modifications. The results provide new insights into the function of this family of conserved herpesvirus proteins, and the conservation of this SUMO E3 ligase activity across diverse herpesviruses suggests the importance of this activity for herpesvirus infections.
Combined RNA interference of adenine nucleotide translocase-2 and ganciclovir therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma
NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY
Authors: Kim, Jung Eun; Hwang, Mi-Hye; Lee, Ho Won; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effects of combined RNA interference (RNAi) of the adenine nucleotide translocase-2 (ANT2) gene and ganciclovir (GCV) therapy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Huh 7) in an animal model. Methods: The Huh 7/NTG stable cell line was established by transfection of a vector with the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS), HSV1-sr39 thymidine kinase (tk), and enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP) fusion gene into Huh 7 cells. mRNA expressions of these genes were evaluated by RT-PCR analysis. The functions of hNIS and HSV1-sr39tk were verified with I-125 uptake and H-3-penciclovir (PCV) uptake tests. EGFP and hNIS expression was confirmed with confocal microscopy after immunocytochemical staining. We treated the tumor cells with ANT2 shRNA or GCV or both ANT2 shRNA and GCV and treated the in vivo mouse model with a Huh 7/NTG tumor xenograft. The therapeutic effects of the in vivo study were assessed with caliper measurements and gamma camera imaging using Tc-99m-pertechnetate. Results: Huh 7/NTG cells showed a cell number-dependent increase in I-125 uptake and a 24-fold higher H-3-PCV uptake compared to parent Huh 7 cells. Huh 7/NTG cells transfected with ANT2 shRNA had lower ANT2 mRNA expression and more impaired proliferation activity than cells transfected with scramble shRNA. Proliferation of Huh 7/NTG cells was also inhibited by GCV treatment. Combined GCV and ANT2 shRNA therapy further inhibited cell proliferation in the in vitro study. The combined therapy with GCV and ANT2 shRNA showed a further decrease in tumor growth in the mouse model. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the combined RNA interference with ANT2 and GCV therapy inhibited hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation more than single GCV therapy or ANT2 shRNA therapy in vitro and in vivo. Therefore it could be applied treating incurable hepatocellular carcinoma. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.