An insulator-like sequence acts as a negative regulatory element in between the mouse Shsp/alpha B-crystallin enhancer and Mkbp/HspB2 promoter
INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE
Authors: Swamynathan, SK; Piatigorsky, J
Behavioral Defects in Chaperone-Deficient Alzheimer's Disease Model Mice
Authors: Ojha, Juhi; Karmegam, Rajalakshmi V.; Masilamoni, J. Gunasingh; Terry, Alvin V., Jr.; Cashikar, Anil G.
Molecular chaperones protect cells from the deleterious effects of protein misfolding and aggregation. Neurotoxicity of amyloid-beta (A beta) aggregates and their deposition in senile plaques are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We observed that the overall content of alpha B-crystallin, a small heat shock protein molecular chaperone, decreased in AD model mice in an age-dependent manner. We hypothesized that alpha B-crystallin protects cells against A beta toxicity. To test this, we crossed alpha B-crystallin/HspB2 deficient (CRYAB(-/-) HSPB2(-/-)) mice with AD model transgenic mice expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein. Transgenic and non-transgenic mice in chaperone-sufficient or deficient backgrounds were examined for representative behavioral paradigms for locomotion and memory network functions: (i) spatial orientation and locomotion was monitored by open field test; (ii) sequential organization and associative learning was monitored by fear conditioning; and (iii) evoked behavioral response was tested by hot plate method. Interestingly, alpha B-crystallin/HspB2 deficient transgenic mice were severely impaired in locomotion compared to each genetic model separately. Our results highlight a synergistic effect of combining chaperone deficiency in a transgenic mouse model for AD underscoring an important role for chaperones in protein misfolding diseases.