Second Case of HOIP Deficiency Expands Clinical Features and Defines Inflammatory Transcriptome Regulated by LUBAC
FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY
Authors: Oda, Hirotsugu; Beck, David B.; Kuehn, Hye Sun; Moura, Natalia Sampaio; Hoffmann, Patrycja; Ibarra, Maria; Stoddard, Jennifer; Tsai, Wanxia Li; Gutierrez-Cruz, Gustavo; Gadina, Massimo; Rosenzweig, Sergio D.; Kastner, Daniel L.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Aksentijevich, Ivona
Background: HOIP is the catalytic subunit of the linear ubiquitination chain assembly complex (LUBAC) that is essential for NF-kappa B signaling and thus proper innate and adaptive immunity. To date only one patient with HOIP deficiency has been reported with clinical characteristics that include autoinflammation, immunodeficiency, amylopectinosis, and systemic lymphangiectasia. Case: We sought to identify a genetic cause of a disease for an 8 year-old girl who presented with early-onset immune deficiency and autoinflammation. Methods: Targeted next generation sequencing of 352 immune-related genes was performed. Functional studies included transcriptome analysis, cytokine profiling, and protein analysis in patients' primary cells. Results: We identified biallelic variants in close proximity to splice sites (c.1197G>C and c.1737+3A>G) in the RNF31 gene. RNA extracted from patient cells showed alternatively spliced transcripts not present in control cells. Protein expression of HOIP and LUBAC was reduced in primary cells as shown by western blotting. Patient-derived fibroblasts demonstrated attenuated IL-6 production, while PBMCs showed higher TNF production after stimulation with proinflammatory cytokines. RNA sequencing of whole blood RNA and PBMCs demonstrated a marked transcriptome wide change including differential expression of type I interferon regulated genes. Conclusion: We report the second case of HOIP deficiency with novel compound heterozygous mutations in RNF31 and distinct clinical and molecular features. Our results expand on the clinical spectrum of HOIP deficiency and molecular signatures associated with LUBAC deficiency.
The E3 ligase HOIP specifies linear ubiquitin chain assembly through its RING-IBR-RING domain and the unique LDD extension
Authors: Smit, Judith J.; Monteferrario, Davide; Noordermeer, Sylvie M.; van Dijk, Willem J.; van der Reijden, Bert A.; Sixma, Titia K.
Activation of the NF-kappa B pathway requires the formation of Met1-linked 'linear' ubiquitin chains on NEMO, which is catalysed by the Linear Ubiquitin Chain Assembly Complex (LUBAC) E3 consisting of HOIP, HOIL-1L and Sharpin. Here, we show that both LUBAC catalytic activity and LUBAC specificity for linear ubiquitin chain formation are embedded within the RING-IBR-RING (RBR) ubiquitin ligase subunit HOIP. Linear ubiquitin chain formation by HOIP proceeds via a two-step mechanism involving both RING and HECT E3-type activities. RING1-IBR catalyses the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 onto RING2, to transiently form a HECT-like covalent thioester intermediate. Next, the ubiquitin is transferred from HOIP onto the N-terminus of a target ubiquitin. This transfer is facilitated by a unique region in the C-terminus of HOIP that we termed 'Linear ubiquitin chain Determining Domain' (LDD), which may coordinate the acceptor ubiquitin. Consistent with this mechanism, the RING2-LDD region was found to be important for NF-kappa B activation in cellular assays. These data show how HOIP combines a general RBR ubiquitin ligase mechanism with unique, LDD-dependent specificity for producing linear ubiquitin chains. The EMBO Journal (2012) 31, 3833-3844. doi:10.1038/emboj.2012.217; Published online 3 August 2012