The Status of Nitric Oxide and its Backup, Heme Oxygenase 1, in Thromboangiitis Obliterans
REPORTS OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Authors: Aliee, Ali; Avval, Farnaz Zahedi; Taheri, Hossein; Moghadam, Saeedeh Mehraban; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Alamdari, Daryoush Hamidi; Fazeli, Bahare
Background:Until recently, a gene polymorphism in the promoter region of endothelial nitric oxide synthase has been suggested as a risk factor for thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) development. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolites of nitric oxide (NO) and its backup, heme-oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), between TAO patients and those of a smoking control group matched by race, age, sex, and smoking habits. Methods: Twenty-four male Caucasian TAO patients and 20 male Caucasian controls enrolled in the study. Their smoking habits were matched based on the serum cotinine levels of 17 of the TAO patients and the 20 controls. A colorimetric kit was used to measure NO, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to measure cotinine and HMOX1 levels. Results: The mean serum level of NO metabolites in the TAO group was significantly less than in the controls (p = 0.03) and also significantly less in the patients with below-knee amputations than in non-amputees (p= 0.018). Also, HMOX1 was significantly greater in the TAO patients than in the controls (p= 0.01). No significant correlation was found between NO and HMOX1 (p = 0.054). Conclusions: Nitric oxide may play a pivotal role in TAO development and its outcome. However, the intact HMOX1 pathway may demonstrate the unique role of NO, which cannot be compensated for by HMOX1 and whose absence may make patients susceptible to developing TAO. In addition, another pathway besides NO, with influence on vascular tone and hemostasis, might be involved in TAO development, such as the autonomic nervous system. Further studies are suggested regarding these issues.
Implication of HMOX1 and CCR5 genotypes on clinical phenotype of Egyptian patients with sickle cell anemia
ANNALS OF HEMATOLOGY
Authors: Bakr, Salwa; Khorshied, Mervat; Talha, Noha; Jaffer, Karim Yahia; Soliman, Nohair; Eid, Khaled; El-Ghamrawy, Mona
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a relatively common inherited hemolytic anemia among individuals of African descent. Genetic factors might clarify clinical diversity of the disease and variations in treatment response. Some researchers investigated heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) or chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 Delta 32) genotypes among SCD patients and their correlation with fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and disease severity. However, there are no such records among Arab nations. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of the HMOX1-413 A>T (rs2071746) and CCR5 Delta 32 (rs333) polymorphisms, and to assess their effect on SCD phenotype and HbF level among Egyptian patients. Polymerase chain reaction assay was used to determine these polymorphisms among 100 SCD patients and 100 healthy controls. Though not statistically significant, the frequency of individual carrying HMOX-1 polymorphic AT and TT genotypes in both patient and control groups was 92% and 85% respectively. Regarding CCR5 Delta 32 polymorphisms, all SCD patients harbored the wild genotype (100%), while the heteromutant genotype was encountered in 2% of our controls. Patients harboring mutant HMOX-1 had a less frequent vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC)/lifetime, less VOC in the last year, less incidence of stroke, less frequency of hospitalization, and responded more frequently to hydroxyurea with statistically significant differences (p=0.028, 0.007, 0.046, 0.007, and 0.011 respectively). No significant associations with HbF level or other hematologic parameters were encountered among our cohort. Our study results suggest a protective effect of mutant HMOX-1 genotypes in ameliorating the phenotypic severity of the disease. HMOX1-413 A>T (rs2071746) polymorphisms might prove to be a prognostic marker among Egyptian SCD, but not CCR5 Delta 32 (rs333) polymorphisms.