On the Host Side of the Hepatitis E Virus Life Cycle
Authors: Oechslin, Noemie; Moradpour, Darius; Gouttenoire, Jerome
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the most common causes of acute hepatitis in the world. HEV is an enterically transmitted positive-strand RNA virus found as a non-enveloped particle in bile as well as stool and as a quasi-enveloped particle in blood. Current understanding of the molecular mechanisms and host factors involved in productive HEV infection is incomplete, but recently developed model systems have facilitated rapid progress in this area. Here, we provide an overview of the HEV life cycle with a focus on the host factors required for viral entry, RNA replication, assembly and release. Further developments of HEV model systems and novel technologies should yield a broader picture in the future.
Hepatitis E Virus: How It Escapes Host Innate Immunity
Authors: Lhomme, Sebastien; Migueres, Marion; Abravanel, Florence; Marion, Olivier; Kamar, Nassim; Izopet, Jacques
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a leading cause of viral hepatitis in the world. It is usually responsible for acute hepatitis, but can lead to a chronic infection in immunocompromised patients. The host's innate immune response is the first line of defense against a virus infection; there is growing evidence that HEV RNA is recognized by toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), leading to interferon (IFN) production. The IFNs activate interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) to limit HEV replication and spread. HEV has developed strategies to counteract this antiviral response, by limiting IFN induction and signaling. This review summarizes the advances in our knowledge of intracellular pathogen recognition, interferon and inflammatory response, and the role of virus protein in immune evasion.