Molecular Characterization of Hemorrhagic Enteritis Virus (HEV) Obtained from Clinical Samples in Western Canada 2017-2018
Authors: Palomino-Tapia, Victor; Mitevski, Darko; Inglis, Tom; van der Meer, Frank; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal
Hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) is an immunosuppressive adenovirus that causes an acute clinical disease characterized by hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in 4-week-old turkeys and older. Recurrent incidence of secondary infections (e.g., systemic bacterial infections, cellulitis, and elevated mortality), may be associated with the presence of field-type HEV in Canadian turkey farms. We speculate that field-type HEV and vaccine/vaccine-like strains can be differentiated through analysis of the viral genomes, hexon genes, and the specific virulence factors (e.g., ORF1, E3, andfibknob domain). Nine out of sixteen spleens obtained from cases suspected of immunosuppression by HEV were analyzed. The limited data obtained showed that: (1) field-type HEV circulates in many non-vaccinated western Canadian flocks; (2) field-type HEV circulates in vaccinated flocks with increased recurrent bacterial infections; and (3) the existence of novel point mutations in hexon, ORF1, E3, and speciallyfibknob domains. This is the first publication showing the circulation of wild-type HEV in HEV-vaccinated flocks in Western Canada, and the usefulness of a novel procedure that allows whole genome sequencing of HEV directly from spleens, without passaging in cell culture or passaging in vivo. Further studies focusing more samples are required to confirm our observations and investigate possible vaccination failure.
No evidence of sexual transmission of HEV among individuals using HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis
JOURNAL OF VIRAL HEPATITIS
Authors: Migueres, Marion; Ducours, Mailys; Dimeglio, Chloe; Trimoulet, Pascale; Abravanel, Florence; Delobel, Pierre; Cazanave, Charles; Izopet, Jacques
We investigated the seroprevalence and incidence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) who have been exposed to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV as sexual transmission of HEV has been suggested. A total of 147 PrEP-using MSM and 147 blood donors matched for sex, age and geographical area were tested for anti-HEV IgG and IgM. Among them, 135 have been followed for 1 year, at the end of which serological tests for HEV were performed retrospectively on stored samples. Laboratory data on sexual transmitted infections (STIs) and viral hepatitis, including hepatitis A virus (HAV), were collected. Baseline seroprevalence rates in PrEP users were 42.2% (anti-HEV IgG) and 3.4% (anti-HEV IgM). Those of the control blood donors were similar (anti-HEV IgG 43.5% and anti-HEV IgM 4.1%). There was no incident of HEV infection despite the rates of bacterial STIs (incidence rate (IR) = 46.6%) and HAV infection (IR = 15.8%). Age was the only risk factor associated with anti-HEV IgG seropositivity at baseline and at the end of follow-up. Sexual transmission does not seem to be a major route of HEV infection in MSM, unlike HAV.