Health Department Efforts to Increase Hepatitis C RNA Testing Among People Appearing Out of Care: Comparison of Outreach Approaches, New York City, 2017
PUBLIC HEALTH REPORTS
Authors: Webster, Rachel; Moore, Miranda S.; Bocour, Angelica; Johnson, Nirah; Winters, Ann
Objectives Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem in New York City. Although curative treatments are available, many people are out of care. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) used surveillance data and various outreach methods to attempt to link to care people diagnosed with HCV infection from 2010 through 2015. Methods We randomly assigned people out of care (ie, no HCV test >6 months after first report) to 4 outreach groups: no outreach (control group); letter only; letter and telephone call; and letter, text message, and telephone call. Three months after outreach ended, we analyzed surveillance data to identify people with a subsequent HCV RNA or genotype test suggesting linkage to care. Results Of 2626 selected people, 199 (7.6%) had a subsequent HCV test. People in all 3 outreach groups had higher odds of a subsequent test than people in the control group (letter only: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.81 [95% CI, 1.18-2.91]; letter and telephone: aOR = 3.11 [95% CI, 1.67-5.79]; letter, text, and telephone: aOR = 3.17 [95% CI, 1.48-6.51]). People in the letter and telephone group had higher odds of a subsequent test than people in the letter-only group (aOR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.04-2.74). Most people in the letter and telephone (136/200, 68.0%) and the letter, text, and telephone (71/99, 71.7%) groups could not be reached, primarily because telephone numbers were incorrect or out of service. Conclusion Reaching out to people soon after first report or prioritizing groups in which more recent contact information can be found might improve outcomes of future outreach.
Association of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infection with long-term outcomes post-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in a disadvantaged urban community
Authors: Shitole, Sanyog G.; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Hanna, David B.; Boucher, Thomas; Peng, Angel Y.; Berardi, Cecilia; Shah, Tina; Bortnick, Anna E.; Christia, Panagiota; Scheuer, James; Kizer, Jorge R.
Background: HIV and HCV have been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Their impact on long-term outcomes following ST-segment myocardial infarction (STEMI) has not been previously studied. Methods: We leveraged data from a STEMI registry (n = 1208) at an inner-city health system to assess the influence of HIV and HCV on post-STEMI outcomes. Cox regression was used to compare HIV-monoinfected (n = 22), HCV-monoinfected (n = 26) and HIV-HCV-coinfected patients (n = 8) with the neither-infected group (n = 1152) with regard to death, death or any readmission, and death or CVD readmission. Results: The cohort was majority black or Hispanic. Median follow-up was 4.3 years. Compared to the neither-infected group, the HIV-monoinfected group showed near-significantly higher risks of death or any readmission (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 0.96, 2.74) and death or CVD readmission (HR = 1.82, 95% CI = 0.98, 3.39) after full adjustment. On similar comparison, the HCV-monoinfected group exhibited significantly higher risks of death (HR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.05, 4.15) and death or any readmission (HR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.07, 2.65), whereas the HIV-HCV-coinfected group showed higher risk of death (HR = 6.51, 95% CI = 2.28, 18.61). Conclusions: In this cohort composed mostly of race-ethnic minorities, HIV monoinfection tended to be associated with 1.6-to-1.8-fold higher risk of death or readmission for any cause or CVD over long-term follow-up compared to neither infection, whereas HCV monoinfection was associated with 1.7-to-2.1-fold higher risk of death and death or any readmission, and HIV-HCV coinfection with 6.5-fold higher risk of death. These associations require further study in larger populations, but highlight the importance of identifying and treating HIV and HCV in patients presenting with STEMI.