Matrix metalloproteinase-13is a target gene of high-mobility group box-containing protein 1 in modulating oral cancer cell invasion
JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY
Authors: Chan, Chien-Yi; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Sheu, Jim Jinn-Chyuan; Wu, Wen-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Yin
Transcription factor high-mobility group box-containing protein 1 (HBP1) may function as a tumor suppressor in various types of cancer. In a previous study, we demonstrated that HBP1 suppressed cell invasion in oral cancer. To further understand the underlying mechanism, the current study is aimed at investigating how HBP1 exerts its antimetastatic potential in oral cancer. In a cell model, ectopic expression of HBP1 potently suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular migration, and invasion; conversely, HBP1 knockdown promoted these malignant phenotypes. The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family is highly implicated in tumor metastasis. Therefore, we examined the effect of HBP1 on the activation of the MMP members, MMP-2, -9, and -13 that are highly associated with the aggressiveness of oral cancer. Ectopic expression of HBP1 resulted in a mild reduction in the expression and activity of MMP-2 and -9, yet it had a potent inhibitory effect on MMP-13. In contrast, HBP1 knockdown strongly enhanced the activation of MMP-13. Further, we demonstrated that MMP-13 is a target of HBP1 transcription repression as evidenced by the identification of an HBP1 binding site in the cis proximal region of the MMP-13 promoter. More important, MMP-13 knockdown significantly alleviated HBP1 small interfering RNA-mediated promotion in cell invasion. Analysis of oral tumor specimens revealed that the low HBP1 (<0.3-fold)/high MMP-13 (>3-fold) status was associated with metastatic potential. All told, our study provides evidence supporting the idea that the HBP1-MMP-13 axis is a key regulator of the aggressiveness in oral cancer.
Activation and repression of p21(WAF1/CIP1) transcription by RB binding proteins
Authors: Gartel, AL; Goufman, E; Tevosian, SG; Shih, H; Yee, AS; Tyner, AL
The Cdk inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) is a negative regulator of the cell cycle, although its expression is induced by a number of mitogens that promote cell proliferation. We have found that E2F1 and E2F3, transcription factors that activate genes required for cell cycle progression, are strong activators of the p21 promoter. In contrast, HBP1 (HMG-box protein-1), a novel retinoblastoma protein-binding protein, can repress the p21 promoter and inhibit induction of p21 expression by E2F, Both E2Fs and HBP1 regulate p21 transcription through cis-acting elements located between nucleotides -119 to + 16 of the p21 promoter and the DNA binding domains of each of these proteins are required for activity. Sequences between -119 and -60 basepairs containing four Spl consensus elements and two noncanonical E2F binding sites are of major importance for E2F activation, although E2F1 and E2F3 differ in the extent of their ability to activate expression when this segment is deleted. The opposing effects of E2Fs and HBP1 on p21 promoter activity suggest that interplay between these factors may determine the level of p21 transcription in vivo.