Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl detection based on a genetically engineered bioluminescent whole-cell sensing system
Authors: Turner, Kendrick; Xu, Shifen; Pasini, Patrizia; Deo, Sapna; Bachas, Leonidas; Daunert, Sylvia
The metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), have been identified as environmental contaminants. Various studies have shown that some OH-PCBs can potentially contribute to health problems. Detection of these compounds in environmental and biological samples could provide useful information about their levels and lead to a better understanding of their apparent toxicity. To that end, we have developed a whole-cell sensing system for the detection of OH-PCBs by taking advantage of the recognition of a group of related compounds, i.e., hydroxylated biphenyls, by the product of the hbpR gene in the hbp operon from Pseudomonas azelaica strain HBP1. By fusing the luxAB genes, encoding the reporter protein bacterial luciferase, to the hbp regulator-promoter sequence, a whole-cell sensing system was developed. Here, we describe the optimization and application of this whole-cell sensing system for the detection of a model compound, 2-hydroxy-3',4'-dichlorobiphenyl. A detection limit of I X 10(-8) M was achieved using this system. The detection of a broad range of individual OH-PCBs as well as an OH-PCB mixture was investigated. The system can detect OH-PCBs in whole serum samples in a trace amount, which is comparable to the detection of these analytes in medium alone. We envision that the method developed can potentially be employed as a rapid and sensitive way to monitor OH-PCBs for toxicological study in the laboratory, as well as a useful tool to evaluate the presence of bioavailable OH-PCBs in natural environments.
SELECTION OF PSEUDOMONAS SP STRAIN HBP1 PRP FOR METABOLISM OF 2-PROPYLPHENOL AND ELUCIDATION OF THE DEGRADATIVE PATHWAY
APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY
Authors: KOHLER, HPE; VANDERMAAREL, MJEC; KOHLERSTAUB, D
A mutant of Pseudomonas sp. strain HBP1, originally isolated on 2-hydroxybiphenyl, was selected for the ability to grow on 2-propylphenol as the sole carbon and energy source. In the mutant strain, which was designated as Pseudomonas sp. strain HBP1 Prp, the cellular induction mechanism involved in the synthesis of the NADH-dependent monooxygenase is changed. 2-Propylphenol, which is known to be a substrate of the monooxygenase, does not induce formation of the monooxygenase in the wild type but does have an induction effect in the mutant strain. Furthermore, in contrast to the wild type, mutant strain HBP1 Prp constitutively produces a small amount of monooxygenase and metapyrocatechase. The enzymes from strain HBP1 Prp catalyzing the first three steps in the degradation of 2-propylphenol-the NADH-dependent monooxygenase, the metapyrocatechase, and the meta fission product hydrolase were partially purified, and their activities were measured. The product of the monooxygenase activity was identified by mass spectrometry as 3-propylcatechol. The metapyrocatechase used this compound as a substrate and produced a yellow meta fission product that was identified by mass spectrometry as 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-nona-2,4-dienoate. Butyrate could be detected as a product of the meta fission product hydrolase in crude cell extract of 2-propylphenol-grown cells, as well as an intermediate in culture broths during growth on 2-propylphenol. All three enzymes expressed highest activities for the metabolites of the degradation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl.