Recent trends in hepatitis A incidence in Brazil
JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY
Authors: De Oliveira, Talita M.; Vieira, Nadia S. G.; Sepp, Thais D. S.; Souto, Francisco J. D.
Hepatitis A incidence has been decreasing in Brazil since child vaccination was implemented in 2014. This trend was interrupted by an outbreak among adult male in Sao Paulo in 2017. This study was outlined to estimate whether the increase of hepatitis A cases among adult men in Brazil was restricted to Sao Paulo. Cases reported to the national surveillance system from 14 large cities of all Brazilian regions were analyzed. Trends in time series from 2012 to 2018 were estimated by Prais-Winsten regression. The outbreak in Sao Paulo extended to 2018. In Rio de Janeiro, the number of cases rose again, achieving the same levels reported before the vaccination era. Three of six cities from South and Southeast regions showed an upward trend in the number of cases among adult men (P < .005). The large cities in the other three Brazilian macroregions showed a decrease or stabilization of cases without an increase among male adults. The increase of hepatitis A virus (HAV) cases in Brazil has happened not only in Sao Paulo, but also in other cities of South and Southeast regions. The northernmost cities were not affected. A change in the epidemiological pattern of HAV infection is emerging in Southern Brazil.
A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON PREVALENCE, PATTERN AND COINFECTION OF HEPATITIS VIRUSES IN ACUTE INFECTIOUS HEPATITIS
INDO AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
Authors: Asghar, Qurat ul Ain; Parvez, Ateeb; Noor, Rao Tayyaba
Introduction: There is fluctuation of information with respect to seroprevalence and coinfection of hepatitis infections. Our goal was to decide the greatness, example and coinfection of hepatitis infections in clinically associated cases with intense irresistible hepatitis. Techniques: This illustrative examination was led in the Department of Pathology In Rawalpindi Medical College over a time of 1 year from January 2017 to December 2018. All the se-rum examples taken from subjects (n= 600 in study gathering and n=200 in control gathering) were tried for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), Immunoglobulin M (IgM) neutralizer against HAV, HCV and HEV utilizing monetarily accessible protein connected immunosorbent examine pack. Serum tests positive for HBs Ag were additionally tried for IgM catch against hepatitis D infection (HDV) by ELISA philosophy. We utilized SPSS Ver.10.0 (SPSS Inc. Chicago,- Illinois) for the factual examination. The methods for ceaseless factors among the gatherings were analyzed utilizing the Student's t-test while extents were tried by Chi-square test. Results: Seroprevalence of intense viral hepatitis was 128/600 (21.3%) and 17/200 (8.5%) in study and control bunch individually (p<0.05). HAV was the commonest cause 50/600 (8.3%) trailed by HCV 33/600 (5.5%), HBV 24/600 (4%) and HEV 21/600 (3.5%). Coinfection rate among the investigation bunch was 11/128 (8.5%) and most extreme coinfection rates were seen with HBV 8/11 (72%). 4/24 (16.6%) of the HBV contaminated cases were coinfected with HDV. Male transcendence was seen for every one of the markers. In general sex shrewd seropositivity in guys was 81/362 (22.3%) and 47/238 (19%) in females in study gathering while it was 14/121 (11.5%) and 3/79 (3.7%) separately in controls. Ends: Acute irresistible hepatitis is a critical weight on the general public. HAV is the prevalent type of intense viral hepatitis. HBV, HCV and HEV were other driving reasons for intense viral hepatitis. Coinfection of HBV with HDV is the commonest design.