H1N1 HA ELISA development kit (DEIA533Cal)

Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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Size
5 plates
Sample
serum
Species Reactivity
N/A
Intended Use
_The Influenza A H1N1 HA ELISA development kit is for the quantitative determination of Influenza A H1N1 (A/California/04/2009) Hemagglutinin.
_This ELISA Pair Set contains the basic components required for the development of sandwich ELISAs.
Storage
Capture Antibody: Aliquot and store at -20°C to -80°C for up to 6 months from date of receipt. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Detection Antibody: Store at 4°C and protect it from prolonged exposure to light for up to 6 months from date of receipt. DO NOT FREEZE!
Standard: Store lyophilized standard at -20°C to -80°C for up to 6 months from date of receipt. Aliquot and store the reconstituted standard at -80°C for up to 1 month. Avoid repeated freezethaw cycles.
Sensitivity
The minimum detectable dose of Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu 2009) Hemagglutinin/HA was determined to be approximately 15.625 pg/ml. This is defined as at least three times standard deviations above the mean optical density of 10 replicates of the zero standard.
General Description
Influenza (flu) is a viral respiratory infection in mammals and birds. This virus is divided into three main types (A, B and C). Influenza A is found in a wide variety of mammalian and avian species and is associated with the major human pandemics. Influenza B is largely confined to humans and became unexpectedly prevalent in humans during 2000-2002. Influenza C infects humans, dogs and pigs and generally causes only mild upper respiratory tract infection. However, influenza A and B viruses cause a wide spectrum of severe disease including lower respiratory, tract infection, pneumonia and encephalitis. Influenza A is further divided into subtypes based on antigenic differences in the membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). 16 HAs (H1-H16) and 9 NA (N1-N9) had been identified. While different combinations of the two antigens appear more frequently in some groups of birds than others, only few subtypes have established themselves in humans (HA:H1, H2, and H3; NA: N1 and N2).
The 2009 flu pandemic is caused by a new swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus which is a recombinated production by human H3N2, swine H1N1 and avian H5N1strains. The mixing of new genetic elements in swine can result in the emergence of viruses with pandemic potential in humans. As 2009 H1N1 influenza is a new virus and most people have no or little immunity this virus could cause more infections than are seen with seasonal flu. The virus spread worldwide by human-to-human transmission, causing the World Health Organization to raise its pandemic alert to the highest level 6. The HA, NA, and MP sequences of 2009 H1N1 flu (swine flu) have been placed on deposit at GISAID.
Hemagglutinin (HA), which binds to sialic acid (SA)-containing receptors on host cells, is the protein that produces neutralizing antibodies. Hemagglutinin plays a major role in the determination of host range restriction and virulence because human influenza HA preferentially binds to SA-α-2,6 while avian influenza HA preferentially binds to SA-α-2,3. The cleavage of HA into two disulfide-linked subunits, HA1 and HA2, is a prerequisite for initiating infection. Usually HA is restricted to be cleaved at respiratory tracts by limited proteases. Highly pathogenic avian influenza contains a stretch of basic residues adjacent to the HA cleavage site, enabling its HA to be cleaved by a wide range of proteases with ubiquitous tissue distributions. This process permits productive virus replication in organs outside of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, including the brain, resulting in widespread disease and high mortality rates.

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References


A broad-spectrum virus- and host-targeting peptide against respiratory viruses including influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS

Authors: Zhao, Hanjun; To, Kelvin K. W.; Sze, Kong-Hung; Yung, Timothy Tin-Mong; Bian, Mingjie; Lam, Hoiyan; Yeung, Man Lung; Li, Cun; Chu, Hin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

The 2019 novel respiratory virus (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 with rapid global socioeconomic disruptions and disease burden to healthcare. The COVID-19 and previous emerging virus outbreaks highlight the urgent need for broad-spectrum antivirals. Here, we show that a defensin-like peptide P9R exhibited potent antiviral activity against pH-dependent viruses that require endosomal acidification for virus infection, including the enveloped pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV), and the non-enveloped rhinovirus. P9R can significantly protect mice from lethal challenge by A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and shows low possibility to cause drug-resistant virus. Mechanistic studies indicate that the antiviral activity of P9R depends on the direct binding to viruses and the inhibition of virus-host endosomal acidification, which provides a proof of concept that virus-binding alkaline peptides can broadly inhibit pH-dependent viruses. These results suggest that the dual-functional virus- and host-targeting P9R can be a promising candidate for combating pH-dependent respiratory viruses.

Caregiver willingness to vaccinate their children against COVID-19: Cross sectional survey

VACCINE

Authors: Goldman, Ran D.; Yan, Tyler D.; Seiler, Michelle; Cotanda, Cristina Parra; Brown, Julie C.; Klein, Eileen J.; Hoeffe, Julia; Gelernter, Renana; Hall, Jeanine E.; Davis, Adrienne L.; Griffiths, Mark A.; Mater, Ahmed; Manzano, Sergio; Gualco, Gianluca; Shimizu, Naoki; Hurt, Thomas L.; Ahmed, Sara; Hansen, Matt; Sheridan, David; Ali, Samina; Thompson, Graham C.; Gaucher, Nathalie; Staubli, Georg

Background: More than 100 COVID-19 vaccine candidates are in development since the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence was published in January 2020. The uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine among children will be instrumental in limiting the spread of the disease as herd immunity may require vaccine coverage of up to 80% of the population. Prior history of pandemic vaccine coverage was as low as 40% among children in the United States during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Purpose: To investigate predictors associated with global caregivers' intent to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, when the vaccine becomes available. Method: An international cross sectional survey of 1541 caregivers arriving with their children to 16 pediatric Emergency Departments (ED) across six countries from March 26 to May 31, 2020. Results: 65% (n = 1005) of caregivers reported that they intend to vaccinate their child against COVID-19, once a vaccine is available. A univariate and subsequent multivariate analysis found that increased intended uptake was associated with children that were older, children with no chronic illness, when fathers completed the survey, children up-to-date on their vaccination schedule, recent history of vaccination against influenza, and caregivers concerned their child had COVID-19 at the time of survey completion in the ED. The most common reason reported by caregivers intending to vaccinate was to protect their child (62%), and the most common reason reported by caregivers refusing vaccination was the vaccine's novelty (52%). Conclusions: The majority of caregivers intend to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, though uptake will likely be associated with specific factors such as child and caregiver demographics and vaccination history. Public health strategies need to address barriers to uptake by providing evidence about an upcoming COVID-19 vaccine's safety and efficacy, highlighting the risks and consequences of infection in children, and educating caregivers on the role of vaccination. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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