The H1N1 (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934) HA ELISA Pair Set is for the quantitative determination of H1N1 (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934) HA. This ELISA Pair Set contains the basic components required for the development of sandwich ELISAs.
Capture Antibody: Aliquot and store at -20°C to -80°C for up to 6 months from date of receipt. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Detection Antibody: Store at 4°C and protect it from prolonged exposure to light for up to 6 months from date of receipt. DO NOT FREEZE!
Standard: Store lyophilized standard at -20°C to -80°C for up to 6 months from date of receipt. Aliquot and store the reconstituted standard at -80°C for up to 1 month. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
The minimum detectable dose of H1N1 ( A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 ) HA was determined to be approximately 46.88 pg/ml. This is defined as at least three times standard deviations above the mean optical density of 10 replicates of the zero standard.
Influenza (flu) is a respiratory infection in mammals and birds. This virus is divided into three main types (A, B and C). Influenza A is found in a wide variety of bird and mammal species and is further divided into subtypes based on differences in the membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Influenza A H1N1 virus is a subtype of influenza A virus. Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza. H1N1 strains caused a few percent of all human flu infections in 2004- 2005. Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in pigs (swine influenza) and in birds (avian influenza). H1N1 was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009. In June 2009, the World Health Organization declared the new strain of swine-origin H1N1 as a pandemic. This strain is often called swine flu by the public media. This novel virus spread worldwide and had caused about 17,000 deaths by the start of 2010.
Hemagglutinin (HA) is a single-pass type I integral membrane glycoprotein from the influenza virus, and comprises over 80% of the envelope proteins present in the virus particle. In natural infection, inactive HA is matured into HA1 and HA2 outside the cell by one or more trypsin-like, arginine-specific endoprotease secreted by the bronchial epithelial cells. Binding of HA to sialic acid-containing receptors on the surface of its target cell brings about the attachment of the virus particle to the cell and forms a endosome. Low pH in endosomes induce an irreversible conformational change in HA2, releasing the hydrophobic portion "fusion peptide". After which, virus penetrates the cell and pours its contents including the RNA genome into the cytoplasm mediated by fusion of the endocytosed virus particle's own membrane and the endosomal membrane. Hemagglutinin plays a major role in the determination of host range restriction and virulenc.