H1N1 (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934) Hemagglutinin ELISA Pair Set (DEIA533)

Regulatory status: For research use only, not for use in diagnostic procedures.

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5 plates
serum, plasma
Species Reactivity
Intended Use
The H1N1 (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934) HA ELISA Pair Set is for the quantitative determination of H1N1 (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934) HA. This ELISA Pair Set contains the basic components required for the development of sandwich ELISAs.
Capture Antibody: Aliquot and store at -20°C to -80°C for up to 6 months from date of receipt. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Detection Antibody: Store at 4°C and protect it from prolonged exposure to light for up to 6 months from date of receipt. DO NOT FREEZE!
Standard: Store lyophilized standard at -20°C to -80°C for up to 6 months from date of receipt. Aliquot and store the reconstituted standard at -80°C for up to 1 month. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Detection Range
46.88-3000 pg/mL
The minimum detectable dose of H1N1 ( A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 ) HA was determined to be approximately 46.88 pg/ml. This is defined as at least three times standard deviations above the mean optical density of 10 replicates of the zero standard.
General Description
Influenza (flu) is a respiratory infection in mammals and birds. This virus is divided into three main types (A, B and C). Influenza A is found in a wide variety of bird and mammal species and is further divided into subtypes based on differences in the membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Influenza A H1N1 virus is a subtype of influenza A virus. Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza. H1N1 strains caused a few percent of all human flu infections in 2004- 2005. Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in pigs (swine influenza) and in birds (avian influenza). H1N1 was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009. In June 2009, the World Health Organization declared the new strain of swine-origin H1N1 as a pandemic. This strain is often called swine flu by the public media. This novel virus spread worldwide and had caused about 17,000 deaths by the start of 2010.
Hemagglutinin (HA) is a single-pass type I integral membrane glycoprotein from the influenza virus, and comprises over 80% of the envelope proteins present in the virus particle. In natural infection, inactive HA is matured into HA1 and HA2 outside the cell by one or more trypsin-like, arginine-specific endoprotease secreted by the bronchial epithelial cells. Binding of HA to sialic acid-containing receptors on the surface of its target cell brings about the attachment of the virus particle to the cell and forms a endosome. Low pH in endosomes induce an irreversible conformational change in HA2, releasing the hydrophobic portion "fusion peptide". After which, virus penetrates the cell and pours its contents including the RNA genome into the cytoplasm mediated by fusion of the endocytosed virus particle's own membrane and the endosomal membrane. Hemagglutinin plays a major role in the determination of host range restriction and virulenc.


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Nitrogen composition in furrow irrigated run-off water


Authors: Macdonald, B. C. T.; Nachimuthu, G.; Chang, Y. F.; Nadelko, A. J.; Tuomi, S.; Watkins, M.

Furrow irrigation in cotton growing vertosols is the most preferred method in Australia. After fertilisation, irrigation water interacts with the soil which can dissolve nitrogen (N) compounds into the run-off water. The run-off or tail water that leaves the field is enriched with N and can reduce crop N use efficiency. During 2014 - 2015 and 2015 - 2016 N solute concentration in the irrigation water and run-off was measured in a tillage cropping rotation experiment. In the continuous cotton treatments (2014 - 2015) when urea was broadcast on the surface of furrow irrigated cotton system, 11 % of the applied fertiliser (260 kg N ha(-1)) was lost from the field in the tail water. Most of the losses from the soil occurred during the first irrigation as nitrate and urea. The irrigation water supplied 10 kg dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) kg N ha(-1) to the field. During 2015 - 2016, when subsurface banding of the urea was used, losses equated to 5 % of applied N, in irrigated continuous cotton treatments. In a second crop treatment, an irrigated maize rotation, the broadcasted urea was leached into the soil by rainfall before a 100 mm irrigation event. The run-off losses were less than the sub surface urea banding and in this treatment were 0.5 % of the applied fertiliser. The study shows that DON-N, NO3-N, NH4-N, Urea-N are dissolved from the soil in cotton production systems and lost to furrow irrigation runoff. This dissolved N maybe denitrified in the cotton irrigation network if the tail water is not reused quickly. The results show that N contributions from irrigation water need to be accounted for overall N budget of the cotton farm to improve the N use efficiency.

Is Total Hip Arthroplasty a Cost-Effective Option for Management of Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures? A Trial-Based Analysis of the HEALTH Study


Authors: Axelrod, Daniel; Tarride, Jean-eric; Ekhtiari, Seper; Blackhouse, Gordon; Johal, Herman; Bzovsky, Sofia; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Bhandari, Mohit; Sprague, Sheila

Background: Displaced femoral neck fractures are a significant source of morbidity and mortality and can be treated with either hemiarthroplasty (HA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA). Proponents of THA have argued THA offers lower risk of revision, with improved functional outcomes when compared to HA. To evaluate cost effectiveness of THA compared with HA, a trial-based economic analysis of the HEALTH study was undertaken. Methods: Health care resource utilization (HRU) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data were collected postoperatively and costed using publicly available databases. Using EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) scores, we derived quality adjusted life years (QALYs). A 1.5% discount rate to both costs and QALYs was applied. Age analyses per age group were conducted. All costs are reported in 2019 Canadian dollars. Results: When compared with HA, THA was not cost-effective for all patients with displaced femoral neck fractures ($150,000/QALY gained). If decision makers were willing to spend $50,000 or $100,000 to gain one QALY, the probability of THA being cost-effective was 12.8% and 32.8%, respectively. In a subgroup of patients younger than 73 (first quartile), THA was both more effective and less costly. Otherwise, THA was more expensive and yielded marginal HRQoL gains. Conclusions: Our results suggest that for most patients, THA is not a cost-effective treatment for displaced femoral neck fracture management versus HA. However, THA may be cost effective for younger patients. These patients experience more meaningful improvements in quality of life with less associated cost because of shorter hospital stay and fewer postoperative complications.

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