Galectin-3 Accelerates M2 Macrophage Infiltration and Angiogenesis in Tumors
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY
Authors: Jia, Weizhen; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Yamakawa, Daishi; Naito, Hisamichi; Takakura, Nobuyuki
It is widely accepted that robust invasion of tumor-associated macrophages resembling M2 macrophage correlates with disease aggressiveness by affecting cancer cell invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Many chemokines that induce migration of macrophages have been identified during inflammatory responses; however, further precise analysis of macrophage migration in the tumor microenvironment is required. Here, we analyzed the function of galectin-3 (Gal-3; gene LGALS3, alias Gal3) for macrophage chemotaxis using Gal3(-/-) mice as hosts, and a tumor allograft model. We engineered a concentration gradient of Gal-3 produced by the tumor. In this model, we found that macrophage infiltration was enhanced in tumors developing in these Gal3(-/-) mice relative to the Gal3(+/+) animals. This was accompanied by enhanced tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth in Gal3(-/-) mice. We found that macrophages of the M2 phenotype were dominant in infiltrates in the Gal3(-/-) mice and that they expressed only low Levels of Gal-3. Gal3 knockdown by siRNA in macrophages resulted in enhanced chemotaxis. These data suggest that M2-like macrophages migrate into the tumor along a Gal-3 gradient and that high-level Gal-3 expression in the tumor results in acceleration of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Therefore, Gal-3 could be a potential target for the development of new treatments to inhibit tumor growth.
Immunophenotypic and Ultrastructural Analysis of Mast Cells in Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Type-1: A Possible Connection to Pulmonary Fibrosis
Authors: Kirshenbaum, Arnold S.; Cruse, Glenn; Desai, Avanti; Bandara, Geethani; Leerkes, Maarten; Lee, Chyi-Chia R.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; O'Brien, Kevin J.; Gochuico, Bernadette R.; Stone, Kelly; Gahl, William A.; Metcalfe, Dean D.
Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome type-1 (HPS-1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in HPS1 which result in reduced expression of the HPS-1 protein, defective lysosome-related organelle (LRO) transport and absence of platelet delta granules. Patients with HPS-1 exhibit oculocutaneous albinism, colitis, bleeding and pulmonary fibrosis postulated to result from a dysregulated immune response. The effect of the HPS1 mutation on human mast cells (HuMCs) is unknown. Since HuMC granules classify as LROs along with platelet granules and melanosomes, we set out to determine if HPS-1 cutaneous and CD34+ culture-derived HuMCs have distinct granular and cellular characteristics. Cutaneous and cultured CD34+-derived HuMCs from HPS-1 patients were compared with normal cutaneous and control HuMCs, respectively, for any morphological and functional differences. One cytokine-independent HPS-1 culture was expanded, cloned, designated the HP proMastocyte (HPM) cell line and characterized. HPS-1 and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) alveolar interstitium showed numerous HuMCs; HPS-1 dermal mast cells exhibited abnormal granules when compared to healthy controls. HPS-1 HuMCs showed increased CD63, CD203c and reduced mediator release following FceRI aggregation when compared with normal HuMCs. HPM cells also had the duplication defect, expressed FceRI and intracytoplasmic proteases and exhibited less mediator release following FceRI aggregation. HPM cells constitutively released IL-6, which was elevated in patients' serum, in addition to IL-8, fibronectin-1 (FN-1) and galectin-3 (LGALS3). Transduction with HPS1 rescued the abnormal HPM morphology, cytokine and matrix secretion. Microarray analysis of HPS-1 HuMCs and non-transduced HPM cells confirmed upregulation of differentially expressed genes involved in fibrogenesis and degranulation. Cultured HPS-1 HuMCs appear activated as evidenced by surface activation marker expression, a decrease in mediator content and impaired releasibility. The near-normalization of constitutive cytokine and matrix release following rescue by HPS1 transduction of HPM cells suggests that HPS-1 HuMCs may contribute to pulmonary fibrosis and constitute a target for therapeutic intervention.