Uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein: A biomarker of vitamin K status and cardiovascular risk
Authors: Jespersen, T.; Mollehave, L. T.; Thuesen, B. H.; Skaaby, T.; Rossing, P.; Toft, U.; Jorgensen, N. R.; Corfixen, B. L.; Jakobsen, J.; Frimodt-Moller, M.; Linneberg, A.
Background: Dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (dp-ucMGP) is a biomarker of functional vitamin K status. High plasma dp-ucMGP concentrations reflect a low vitamin K status and have been related to vascular calcification. Our aims were to assess plasma levels of dp-ucMGP and their association with cardiovascular risk in a general population. Methods: Plasma dp-ucMGP measurements were performed using the IDS-iSYS InaKtif MGP assay in 491 consecutive participants in a Danish general population study (229 males and 262 females, aged 19-71 years). Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were used to assess the association between dp-ucMGP levels and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Mean +/- standard deviation (SD) for dp-ucMGP was 465 +/- 181 pmol/L, and upper 95th percentile was 690 pmol/L. In logistic regression analyses, an increase in dp-ucMGP category (< 300, 300-399, 400-499, >= 500 pmol/L) was positively associated with obesity, odds ratio (OR) 2.27 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54-3.33), history of cardiovascular disease, OR 1.77 (CI 1.02-3.05), and above-median estimated pulse wave velocity (ePWV), OR 1.54 (CI 1.21-1.96), when adjusted for age, sex, and lifestyle factors. 1 SD increase in diastolic and systolic blood pressure (BP) corresponded to a 5.5% (CI 2.9-8.0%) and 4.7% (CI 2.1-7.4%) increase in dp-ucMGP, respectively, when adjusted for age and sex. Conclusion: Plasma dp-ucMGP levels were positively associated with obesity, BP, ePWV, and history of cardiovascular disease. These findings support that dp-ucMGP is a biomarker of cardiovascular risk, and that vitamin K status could play a role in vascular calcification. The strong association with obesity deserves further attention.
Bile acids and bilirubin effects on osteoblastic gene profile. Implications in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in liver diseases
Authors: Ruiz-Gaspa, Silvia; Guanabens, Nuria; Jurado Gonzalez, Susana; Dubreuil, Marta; Combalia, Andres; Peris, Pilar; Monegal, Ana; Pares, Albert
Osteoporosis in advanced cholestatic and end-stage liver disease is related to low bone formation. Previous studies have demonstrated the deleterious consequences of lithocholic acid (LCA) and bilirubin on osteoblastic cells. These effects are partially or completely neutralized by ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). We have assessed the differential gene expression of osteoblastic cells under different culture conditions. The experiments were performed in human osteosarcoma cells (Saos-2) cultured with LCA (10 mu M), bilirubin (50 mu M) or UDCA (10 and 100 mu M) at 2 and 24 h. Expression of 87 genes related to bone metabolism and other signalling pathways were assessed by TaqMan micro fluidic cards. Several genes were up-regulated by LCA, most of them pro-apoptotic (BAX, BCL10, BCL2L13, BCL2L14), but also MGP (matrix Gla protein), BGLAP (osteocalcin), SPP1 (osteopontin) and CYP24A1, and down-regulated bone morphogenic protein genes (BMP3 and BMP4) and DKK1 (Dickkopf-related protein 1). Parallel effects were observed with bilirubin, which up-regulated apoptotic genes and CSF2 (colony-stimulating factor 2) and down-regulated antiapoptotic genes (BCL2 and BCL2L1), BMP3, BMP4 and RUNX2. UDCA 100 mu M had specific consequences since differential expression was observed, up-regulating BMP2, BMP4, BMP7, CALCR (calcitonin receptor), SPOCK3 (osteonectin), BGLAP (osteocalcin) and SPP1 (osteopontin), and down-regulating pro-apoptotic genes. Furthermore, most of the differential expression changes induced by both LCA and bilirubin were partially or completely neutralized by UDCA. Conclusion: Our observations reveal novel target genes, whose regulation by retained substances of cholestasis may provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in cholestatic and end-stage liver diseases.