Anti-GVA polyclonal antibody (CABT-B1000)


Host Species
Antibody Isotype
Species Reactivity
Grapevine Virus A
A synthetic peptide corresponding to aa 21-35 (KAQPTDDASESGYDR) of coat protein from GVA


Application Notes
WB: 1:50
*Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrates the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.


Alternative Names
Grapevine Virus A

Product Background

Antigen Description
GVA belongs to the genus Vitivirus of the family Flexiviridae and its genome is composed by a single-stranded positive-sense RNA and a single coat protein subunit of 21-23 kDa. Mutations in the coat protein gene indicated that this structural protein is also required for cell-to-cell movement of the virus. GVA is transmitted by insect vectors or grafting.


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Survey of grapevine pathogens in Pakistan


Authors: Rasool, Sunniya; Naz, Shagufta; Rowhani, Adib; Diaz-Lara, Alfredo; Golino, Deborah A.; Farrar, Kristen D.; Al Rwahnih, Maher

Grapevines from 13 vineyards in Pakistan were surveyed for the prevalence of several pathogens. Using RT-qPCR, 257 samples were tested for 19 viruses, phytoplasmas and Xylella fastidiosa. Prevalent viruses were: grapevine virus A (GVA, 47.8%), grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2, 37.3%), grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV, 36.1%), and grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, 35%). Other viruses detected were: grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1, 2.3%), grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2RG (GLRaV-2RG, 5%), grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3, 7%), grapevine leafroll-associated virus 4 (GLRaV-4) and its strains (5, 6, and Pr, 16.6%), grapevine leafroll-associated virus 7 (GLRaV-7, 4.2%), grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, 11.6%), grapevine virus B (GVB, 4.2%), grapevine virus D (GVD, 0.7%), grapevine virus E (GVE, 1.1%), and grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV, 1.9%). Mixed infections were detected in 75.9% of samples. Pathogens tested for, but not detected include GLRaV-4 strains 9 and Car, grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV), tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), grapevine virus F (GVF), phytoplasmas and X. fastidiosa. Additionally, 16 samples were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to confirm RT-qPCR results. In this paper we present an extensive survey for grapevine pathogens and thus the first report of GVA, GVB, GVD, GVE, GRSPaV, GFkV, GLRaV-1, GLRaV-2, GLRaV-2RG, GLRaV-3, GLRaV-4, GLRaV-4 strains 5, 6, and Pr, and GLRaV-7 in Pakistan.



Authors: Buletova, Natalia; Demushina, Olga

Purpose: The authors set a goal to develop a model of investigating and comparing national economic systems according to the level of their servitization and digitalization. Design/methodology/approach: The research methods include: 1) an author's structural analysis method based on the calculation of coordination indicators by aggregated values Gross value added, and supplemented by a method of graphical analysis of the results of measuring intersectoral proportions over time and the author's typology of national economic systems in terms of economic development, including digital development; 2) systematization of the results of international indices of digitization of the economy or public administration systems for correlation with the results of structural analysis. Findings: It was found out that the results of structural analysis and a distribution of the countries according to their economic development are closely correlated with the results of international rankings which proves the validity of the model. Research/practical implications: The research outcomes may be used by governments and researchers to evaluate and monitor economic development at the national and international level, and construct rankings of countries or regions according to their digitalization level. Originality/value: The presented study is the first attempt to explore economic development of the countries according to the level of digitalization (from agrarian to highly industrial service-oriented, for which the dominant share of services in the structure of GVA and a high level of digitalization according to international ratings is typical). The proposed method of structural analysis and the model developed by the authors are unique. The only exception is the digitalization rating of the public administration system (an example of the E-Government Development Index), since it characterizes not the level of servitization the economy and the trend of its digitalization, but the result of the digitization of governmental functions.

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